According to the Hebrew Bible, one of the names of Baal is Baal Zebub:
“After Ahab died, Moab rebelled against Israel. Ahaziah fell through a window lattice in his upper chamber in Samaria and was injured. He sent messengers with these orders, ‘Go, ask Baal Zebub, the god of Ekron, if I will survive this injury.’ But the angel of the Lord told Elijah the Tishbite, ‘Get up; go to meet the messengers from the king of Samaria. Say this to them: “You must think there is no God in Israel! That explains why you are on your way to seek an oracle from Baal Zebub the god of Ekron.”’… They replied, ‘A man came up to meet us. He told us, “Go back to the king who sent you and tell him, ‘This is what the Lord has said: “You must think there is no God in Israel! That explains why you are sending for an oracle from Baal Zebub, the god of Ekron. Therefore you will not leave the bed you lie on, for you will certainly die.”’”’… Elijah said to the king, ‘This is what the Lord has said, “You sent messengers to seek an oracle from Baal Zebub, the god of Ekron. Is it because there is no God in Israel from whom you can seek a message? Therefore you will not leave the bed you lie on, for you will certainly die.”’” 2 King 1:1-3, 6, 16 New English Translation (NET) Bible
- 2 Kings 1:2sn Apparently Baal Zebub refers to a local manifestation of the god Baal at the Philistine city of Ekron. The name appears to mean “Lord of the Flies,” but it may be a deliberate scribal change of Baal Zebul, “Baal, the Prince,” a title known from the Ugaritic texts. For further discussion and bibliography, see HALOT 261 s.v. זְבוּב בַּעַל and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 25. (NET https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+kings+1&version=NET)
The Lord Jesus identifies Baal Zebub as Satan himself:
“A disciple is not greater than his teacher, nor a slave greater than his master. It is enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house ‘Beelzebul,’ how much worse will they call the members of his household!” Matthew 10:24-25 NET
“The experts in the law who came down from Jerusalem said, ‘He is possessed by Beelzebul,’ and, ‘By the ruler of demons he casts out demons!’ So he called them and spoke to them in parables: ‘How can Satan cast out Satan? If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom will not be able to stand. If a house is divided against itself, that house will not be able to stand. And if Satan rises against himself and is divided, he is not able to stand and his end has come. But no one is able to enter a strong man’s house and steal his property unless he first ties up the strong man. Then he can thoroughly plunder his house. I tell you the truth, people will be forgiven for all sins, even all the blasphemies they utter. But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven, but is guilty of an eternal sin’ (because they said, ‘He has an unclean spirit’).” Mark 3:22-30 NET
“Then they brought to him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute. Jesus[ac] healed him so that he could speak and see.[ad]All the crowds were amazed and said, ‘Could this one be the Son of David?’But when the Pharisees[ae] heard this they said, ‘He does not cast out demons except by the power of Beelzebul,[af] the ruler[ag] of demons!’Now when Jesus[ah] realized what they were thinking, he said to them,[ai] ‘Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed,[aj] and no town or house divided against itself will stand.So if[ak] Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons[al] cast them[am] out? For this reason they will be your judges. But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God[an] has already overtaken[ao] you. How[ap] else can someone enter a strong man’s[aq] house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can thoroughly plunder the house.[ar] Whoever is not with me is against me,[as] and whoever does not gather with me scatters.[at] For this reason I tell you, people will be forgiven for every sin and blasphemy,[au] but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven.Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven.[av] But whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven,[aw] either in this age or in the age to come.” Matthew 12:24-32
- Matthew 12:24tn Grk “except by Beelzebul.”sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical. NET
Here’s where it gets interesting.
The Islamic sources testify that the chief deity of Mecca and the lord of the Kabah was Hubal, who was viewed as the moon god. Hubal was also the idol whom Muhammad’s tribe and family worshiped. The evidence further suggests that the Meccans even referred to him as Allah, since the Muslim literature attests that Muhammad’s grandfather would pray to Allah while standing before Hubal’s idol:
Hubal Chief god of the Ka ‘ba; a martial and oracular deity; a moon god. (Gods, Goddesses and Mythology, ed. C. Scott Littleton [Marshal Cavendish Corporation 2005], Volume 11, p. 137)
Hubal – an idol, the God of the Moon. Centuries before Islam, ‘Amr ibn Luhayy, a chief of the tribe of Jurhum who dwelt in Mecca before the coming of the Quraysh tribe, brought the idol to the city from Syria. It was set up in the Ka‘bah and became the principal idol of the pagan Meccans. The ritual casting of lots and divining arrows was performed in front of it.
“… The presiding deity was Hubal, a large carnelian kept inside the temple; 360 other idols were arranged outside…” (Malise Ruthven, Islam in the World [Oxford University Press, Second edition 2000], p. 15; bold emphasis mine)
“… Although originally under the aegis of the pagan god Hubal, the Makkan haram which centered around the well of Zamzam, may have become associated with the ancestral figures of Ibrahim and Isma’il as the Arab traders, shedding their parochial backgrounds sought to locate themselves within the broader reference-frame of Judeo-Christianity.” (Ibid., p. 17; bold emphasis mine)
“… the god of Makka, Hubal, represented by a statue of red carnelian, is thought to have been originally a totem of the Khuza’a, rulers of Makka before their displacement by the Quraysh…” (Ibid. p. 28; bold emphasis mine)
“… At the center of the town was the shrine called the Ka‘ba – a large, cubical building with a sacred black stone affixed in one corner – that was the sanctuary to the pagan god Hubal…” (Fred McGraw Donner, Muhammad And The Believers: At The Origins Of Islam [Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010], 1. The Near East on the Eve of Islam, p. 35; bold emphasis mine)
“Ibn Ishaq stated, ‘It is claimed that when ‘Abd al-Muttalib received such opposition from Quraysh over the digging of zamzam, he vowed that if ten sons were born to him who grew up and protected him, he would sacrifice one of them for God at the ka‘ba.’
“Eventually he had ten sons grown up whom he knew would give him protection. Their names were al-Harith, al-Zubayr, Hajl, Dirar, al-Muqawwim, Abu Lahab, al-‘Abbas, Hamza, Abu Talib, and ‘Abd Allah. He assembled them and told them of his vow and asked them to honour his pledge to God, Almighty and All-glorious is He. They obeyed, and asked him what he wanted them to do. He asked each of them to take an arrow, write his name on it and return to him.
“They did so and went with them inside the ka‘ba to the site of their god Hubal, where there was the well in which offerings to the ka‘ba would be placed. There, near Hubal, were seven arrows which they would use for divining a judgement over some matter of consequence, a question of blood-money, kinship, or the like. They would come to Hubal to seek a resolution, accepting whatever they were ordered to do or to refrain from.” (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], pp. 125-126; bold emphasis mine)
The text of Ibn Kathir continues:
“So they left for Medina, where they found the diviner whose name was Sajah, as Yunus b. Bukayr reported from Ibn Ishaq, was at Khaybar. They rode off again and went to her and sought her advice, ‘Abd al-Muttalib telling her of the whole problem regarding him and his son. She told him: ‘Leave me today, until my attendant spirit comes and I can ask him.’”
“They left her and ‘Abd al-Muttalib prayed to God. Next day they went back to her and she informed them that she had had a message. ‘How much is the blood-money you prescribe?’ she asked. ‘Ten camels,’ they told her, that being then the case. ‘Then go back to your land and present your man as an offering and do the same with the ten camels. Then cast arrows to decide between him and them. If the divining arrow points to him then add to the number of camels until your god is satisfied; if it points to the camels, then sacrifice them in his place. That way you will please your god and save your man.’
“So they went back to Mecca and, when they had agreed to do as she had said, ‘Abd al-Muttalib said prayers to God. Then they offered up ‘Abd Allah and the ten camels as sacrifice and cast the arrow. At that point the men of Quraysh told ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was standing near Hubal praying to God, “It’s all over! Your God is pleased, O ‘Abd al-Muttalib’…” (Ibid., p. 126-127; bold emphasis mine)
It makes absolutely no sense for Muhammad’s grandfather to stand before the statue of Hubal while praying to Allah if they were not one and the same. Nor does it make sense for the grandfather to make a vow to Allah and then go before the idol of Hubal in order to fulfill it!
What makes this rather fascinating is that Hubal was none other than the false god Baal who had been imported from the Moabites!
“The Kaaba itself, which was the sanctuary of the Pagan Arabs, and remained such after they had embraced Islam, is a building about thirty-four feet high and about twenty-seven broad, so called from being almost a perfect square, as the name implies. In this building we find no less than 360 idols; a chief of them, Hubal, was at once the presiding god in the temple and the principal deity of the Koreishites, who were its guardians. The pre-eminence of this idol was evinced by the fact, that before it, the casting of lots with arrows took place. Prior, however, to its obtaining this honour, it passed through a term of probation, for we learn upon good authority, that for a considerable period it stood outside the walls of the Kaaba, patiently waiting for its admission. It was probably introduced when the sanctuary of the Koreish tribe was converted into the Pantheon of the whole of Arabia. The name of Hubal remains a mystery. The opinion that it is synonymous with the Babylonian and Syrian Baal or Bel is supported by the testimony of Arab authorities, according to whom Hubal was originally imported from Syria. These writers do not indeed maintain that Hubal was identical with Baal, but they admit Hubal to be an astronomical deity.
“Again, when it is stated by Abulfeda that the image of Abraham occupied the chief in the Kaaba, and that he was represented by Hubal, we may take it for granted that Hubal had a double character, like Baal, who was both the founder of the Babylonian empire and the solar deity…” (John Muehleisen Arnold, Islam: Its History, Character, and Relation to Christianity, Chapter I. The Land Of Its Birth, The Pre-Islamite Kaaba, pp. 26-27; bold emphasis mine)
“As well as worshipping idols and spirits, found in animals, plants, rocks and water, the ancient Arabs believed in several major gods and goddesses whom they considered to hold supreme power over all things. The most famous of these were Al-lat, Al-‘Uzza, Manat and Hubal. The first three were thought to be the daughters of Allah (God) and their intercessions on behalf of their worshippers were therefore of great significance…
“Al-lat, also known as Alilat, was worshiped in the shape of a square white stone. She was know to other Semitic people in Syria and Mesopotamia, and was the Mother Goddess of Palmyra (in northern Syria), whose symbol was the lion. The Nabataeans of south Jordan and south Palestine worshiped her as the sun goddess, the giver of life. In Mecca, Al-lat had a haram (sanctuary) and a hima where the Arabs flocked to perform the rites of worship and sacrifice which would bring her favour upon them.
“Al-‘Uzza was worshiped in the form of three palm trees, a stone and an idol. She was the supreme deity of the tribe of Quraysh, the rulers of Mecca immediately before Islam. She had a temple and a hima there and was offered gifts in gold and silver and adorned with jewellery. Her name means ‘the most cherished’ but she was a cruel goddess who could be appeased only by the shedding of blood, both human and animal. Like Al-lat, al-‘Uzza was associated with the goddess of love, al-Zuhara, but was more closely linked with Al-lat. The two were often worshipped together and sometimes formed a trinity with Manat or the god Hubal. Replicas of them were carried by the clans of Quraysh when they went to war to inspire the fighters with courage and devotion…
“Hubal was associated with the Semitic god Ba‘l and with Adonis or Tammuz, the gods of spring, fertility, agriculture and plenty… Hubal’s idol used to stand by the holy well inside the Sacred House…” (Fabled Cities, Princes & Jinn From Arab Myths and Legends, text by Khairet al-Saleh, illustrations by Rashad N. Salim [Schocken Books, New York 1985], p. 28; bold emphasis mine)
Muslims are now faced with a dilemma. Since Hubal was the chief god of Mecca and the lord of the Kabah, this means that he would have been the Allah that was worshiped by the pagans. And since Hubal was actually Baal, and since Baal is another name for Satan this means that the Allah of the Quran is none other than Satan himself in disguise.
Note the logic behind this argument:
According to the Lord Jesus, Baal is another name for Satan.
The Muslim sources affirm that Hubal was the chief deity of Mecca and the god of the Kabah.
As the high god, Hubal would have inevitably been called Allah since that is the title which the pagans would have given to their chief presiding deity.
The scholarly literature affirms that Hubal was none other than the false god Baal.
This means that Baal was the Allah worshiped by the pagans at Mecca.
And since Baal is another name for Satan, this shows that the Allah of the Quran is none other than Satan disguising himself as the God of Abraham.