How Islamic Theology Confirms Jesus’ Divine Claims
We continue from where we left off https://answeringallah.com/allahs-names-and-the-deity-of-christ-pt-1/
Al-Qadîm: The Timelessly Eternal
The Timelessly or Beginninglessly Eternal, the opposite of muhdath or hâdith (that which came into existence after not having been). Al-Qadîm has no beginning or is before the beginning. He is outside linear time.
Al-Azalî: The Pre-Eternal
Relating to pre-eternity, existing without any prior non-existence and without any beginning
Al-Awwal, Al-Akhir: The First and the Last
Al-Akhir is He who remains after all His creatures have perished.
Al-Awwal is the First, preceding all others.
Al-Awwal and Al-Akhir are two of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Bâqî: The Abiding
The second dimension of divine eternity along with Al-Qadîm. He will not cease to be. He is the One whose existence has no end. He is Lasting, Perpetual, Endless.
Ad-Dâ’im: The Everlasting
The Everlasting, enduring endlessly, the One who does not perish.
Al-Abadî: The Post-Eternal
The Always enduring, He who has no end and will never cease to be, the Everlasting.
Al-Hayy: The Living
Ever-Living, i.e. Deathless.
Al-Hayy is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Qâdir; Al-Qadîr, Al-Muqtadir: The All-Powerful
Powerful, meaning capable of action. The last two names are more intensive. It entails decreeing and ordaining. It is He who does what He will, according to what wisdom requires, not more or less.
Al-Qadir and Al-Muqtadir are two of the Ninety-Nine Names.
“Then Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, ‘ALL authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth.’” Matthew 28:18
“‘Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day. He saw it and was glad.’ Then the Jews said to Him, ‘You are not yet fifty years old. Have YOU SEEN Abraham?’ Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly I say to you, BEFORE Abraham was born, I AM.’ Then they took up stones to throw at Him. But Jesus hid Himself and went out of the temple. Going through their midst, He passed by.” John 8:56-59
“And now, O Father, glorify Me in Your own presence with the glory which I had with You BEFORE THE WORLD EXISTED… Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, be with Me where I am, that they may see My glory which You have given Me. For You loved Me BEFORE THE CREATION OF THE WORLD.” John 17:5, 24
“Look! He is COMING with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even those who PIERCED HIM. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen. ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End,’ says the Lord, ‘who is and who was and who is TO COME, THE ALMIGHTY.’ I, John, both your brother and companion in the tribulation and kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was on the isle that is called Patmos on account of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day, and I heard behind me a great voice like a trumpet, saying, ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last,’ and ‘What you see, write in a book, and send it to the seven churches which are in Asia: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.’ I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. And when I turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks, and in the midst of the seven candlesticks was one like a Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the feet and with a golden sash wrapped around the chest. The hair on His head was white like wool, as white as snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. His feet were like fine brass, as if refined in a furnace, and His voice as the sound of many waters. He had in His right hand seven stars, and out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword. His appearance was like the sun shining brightly. When I saw Him, I fell at His feet as though I were dead. Then He laid His right hand on me, saying to me, ‘Do not be afraid. I AM THE FIRST AND THE LAST. I AM HE WHO LIVES, though I WAS DEAD. Look! I AM ALIVE FOREVERMORE. Amen. And I have the keys of Hades and of Death. ‘Write the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will take place after this.’” Revelation 1:7-19
“To the angel of the church in Smyrna write: ‘The First and the Last, who was dead and came to life, says these things:’” Revelation 2:8
“‘Look, I AM COMING SOON! My reward is with Me to give to each one according to his work. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, THE FIRST AND THE LAST… I, JESUS, have sent My angel to you with this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star.’… He who testifies to these things says, ‘Surely I AM COMING SOON.’ Amen. Even so, COME LORD JESUS! The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.” Revelation 22:12-13, 16, 20-21
Al-‘Âlim, Al-‘Alîm, Al-‘Allâm: The All-Knowing
The Knower. He who knows what has been and what will be, who ever has known and ever will know what has been and what will be, from whom nothing is concealed in the earth nor in the heaven, whose knowledge comprehends all things in the most complete manner. His knowledge is timeless and essential.
Al-‘Alim is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Khabîr: The All-Aware
He who has perfect knowledge, not touched by doubt or error, who knows even the most hidden. He knows what has been and what is or will be, He knows the internal qualities of things.
Al-Khabir is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
As-Samî’: The All-Hearing
The one who hears all, no matter how faint the sound, without any organ of hearing.
As-Sami’ is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Basîr: The All-Seeing
The One who sees all things, both the apparent and the hidden without any organ of vision.
Al-Basir is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Ash-Shahîd: The Witness
Witness, possessing much knowledge with respect to external things, the One from whom nothing is Hidden; the Faithful in His testimony.
Ash-Shahid is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Hâfiz, Al-Hafîz: The Preserver
The opposite of forgetfulness; to preserve, conserve, the opposite of to let perish. The Preserver of all things; He from whose preservation nothing is excluded, not even an atom in the heavens or the earth: He who preserves His creatures from oblivion and preserves the heavens and earth.
Al-Hafiz is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Qarîb: The Near
Al-Wafî: The Faithful
The One who is faithful to His contracts and pays in full.
“For where two or three are assembled in My name, there I AM in their midst.” Matthew 18:20
“‘teaching them to observe all things I have commanded you. And remember, I AM WITH YOU ALWAYS, even to the end of the age.’ Amen.” Matthew 28:20
“This is the will of the Father who has sent Me, that of all whom He has given Me, I SHOULD LOSE NOTHING, but should raise it up at the last day.” John 6:39
“‘My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. I give them eternal life. THEY SHALL NEVER PERISH, nor shall anyone snatch them FROM MY HAND. My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them from My Father’s hand. My Father and I are one.’ Again the Jews took up stones to stone Him. Jesus answered them, ‘I have shown you many good works from My Father. For which of those works do you stone Me?’ The Jews answered Him, ‘We are not stoning You for a good work, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, claim to be God.’” John 10:27-33
“I WILL DO whatever you ask in My name, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you ask anything in My name, I WILL DO IT.” John 14:13-14
“‘I have told you these things in proverbs. But the time is coming when I will no longer speak to you in proverbs, for I will speak to you plainly about the Father. On that day you will ask in My name. I am not saying to you that I shall ask the Father on your behalf. For the Father Himself loves you, because you have loved Me, and have believed that I came from God. I came from the Father and have come into the world. As I said, I am leaving the world and am going to the Father.’ His disciples said to Him, ‘Yes! Now You are speaking plainly and with no figure of speech. Now we know THAT YOU KNOW EVERYTHING and do not need anyone to question You. By this we believe that You came from God. Jesus answered them, ‘Do you now believe?’” John 16:25-31
“He said to him the third time, ‘Simon, son of John, do you love Me?’ Peter was grieved because He asked him the third time, ‘Do you love Me?’ He said to Him, ‘Lord, YOU KNOW EVERYTHING. You know that I love You.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Feed My sheep.’” John 21:17
“To the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like fine brass, says these things: I KNOW your works, love, service, faith, and your patience, and that your last works are more than the first… I will put her children to death, and all the churches shall know that I AM HE WHO SEARCHES THE HEARTS AND MINDS. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds.’” Revelation 2:18-19, 23
“To the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write: ‘The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Beginning of the creation of God, says these things:’” Revelation 3:14
Al-Hasîb: The Reckoner
He who takes account of the actions of man and reckons them, the One who gives what is sufficient for His slaves.
Al-Hasib is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Bâ’ith: The Raiser
The Raiser, Resurrector. To re-create, like Mu’id; revive; also to send. The One who Quickens mankind after death. To cause something to be.
Al-Ba’ith is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Jâmi’: The Gatherer
He gathers together the creatures; the One who collects created beings for the Day of Reckoning, or the Combiner of things of similar natures and things of contrary natures in existence.
Al-Muhyî, Al-Mumît: The One Who Gives Life, The One who Makes Die
The Life-Giver or Quickener who makes something alive, to be a living thing; He quickenes him or endues him with life or revives him. He revives the earth with rain and endues with intelligence. Al-Mumit is the One who causes to die.
Al-Muhyi and Al-Mumit are two of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-Hakam: The Judge
The Arbiter, Allah judges and there is no reversing His judgement.
Al-Hakam is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Ad-Dayyân: The Requiter
The Judge, one who demands the accounts, retribution. He does not neglect any deed, but requites it properly.
The Prophet said, “Allah will collect His slaves and He will call to them in a voice that those who are far away will hear just as clearly as those who are close at hand: ‘I am the King, the Requiter!’” (Al-Bukhari)
“For the Son of Man shall come with His angels in the glory of His Father, and then He will repay every man according to his works.” Matthew 16:27
“When the Son of Man comes in HIS glory, and all the holy angels with HIM, then HE will sit on the throne of HIS glory. Before HIM will be GATHERED all nations, and HE will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates his sheep from the goats. HE will set the sheep at HIS right hand, but the goats at the left. Then THE KING will say to those at HIS right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of MY FATHER, inherit the kingdom prepared for you since the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in. I was naked and you clothed Me, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me.’ Then the righteous will answer HIM, ‘LORD, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? And when did we see You sick or in prison and come to You?’ THE KING will answer, ‘Truly I say to you, as you have done it for one of the least of these brothers of Mine, you have done it for Me.’ Then HE will say to those at the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave Me no food, I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink, I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, I was naked and you did not clothe Me, I was sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.’ Then they also will answer HIM, ‘LORD, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not serve You?’ HE will answer, ‘Truly I say to you, as you did it not for one of the least of these, you did it not for Me.’ And they will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” Matthew 25:31-46
“For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son GIVES LIFE to whom He will. The Father judges no one, but has committed all judgment to the Son, that all men should honor the Son, JUST AS they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him… Truly, truly I say to you, the hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear THE VOICE OF THE SON OF GOD, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in Himself, so He has given to the Son TO HAVE LIFE IN HIMSELF, and has given Him authority to execute judgment also, because He is the Son of Man. Do not marvel at this. For the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear HIS [the Son’s] VOICE and come out—those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.” John 5:21-23, 25-29
“‘All whom the Father gives Me will come to Me, and he who comes to Me I will never cast out. For I came down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me. This is the will of the Father who has sent Me, that of all whom He has given Me, I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. This is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.’ The Jews then murmured about Him, because He said, ‘I am the bread which came down from heaven.’ They said, ‘Is this not Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, “I have come down from heaven”?’ Jesus therefore answered them, ‘Do not murmur among yourselves. No one can come to Me unless the Father who has sent Me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day.’” John 6:38-44
“I give them eternal life. They shall never perish, nor shall anyone snatch them from my hand.” John 10:28
“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to Him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am THE RESURRECTION and THE LIFE. He who believes in Me, though he may die, yet shall he live. And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?’ She said to Him, ‘Yes, Lord, I believe that You are the Christ, the Son of God, who is to come into the world.’” John 11:23-27
“To the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like fine brass, says these things… I will put her children to death, and all the churches shall know that I am He who searches the hearts and minds. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds.’” Revelation 2:18, 23
Al-Ghâfir, Al-Ghafûr; Al-Ghaffar: The Forgiving, The Ever-Forgiving,
The Endlessly Forgiving
Al-Ghafir who pardons a particular sin; Al-Ghafur who is in the habit of forgiving sins and covering them up; Al-Ghaffar is the One who does not cease to pardon them, one after the other. Ghafr, in the root, means to cover, veil, so to make hidden (unlike ‘afw, to efface), not to punish, to cause them to be undisclosed. The One who covers and forgives the sins of His servants.
Al-Ghafur and Al-Ghaffur are two of the Ninety-Nine Names.
Al-‘Afuw: The All-Pardoning
He who makes disappear, effaces; also has the meaning of fadl, superfluous and so it is resembles Al-Wahhab and Al-Jawad. He forgives much. He passes over wrong actions and pardons faults. More far-reaching than Al-Ghafur, which is veiling. ‘Afw is effacing.
Al-‘Afuw is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.
“Again, He entered Capernaum after some days. And it was reported that He was in the house. Immediately many were gathered together, so that there was no room to receive them, not even at the door. And He preached the word to them. They came to Him bringing one sick with paralysis, who was carried by four men. When they could not come near Him due to the crowding, they uncovered the roof where He was. When they had broken it open, they let down the bed on which the paralytic lay. When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, ‘Son, your sins are forgiven you.’ But some of the scribes were sitting there, reasoning in their hearts, ‘Why does this Man speak such blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God alone?’ IMMEDIATELY, when Jesus perceived IN HIS SPIRIT that they so reasoned WITHIN THEMSELVES, He said to them, ‘Why do you contemplate these things IN YOUR HEARTS? Which is easier to say to the paralytic: “Your sins are forgiven you,” or to say, “Rise, take up your bed and walk”? But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins,’ He said to the paralytic, ‘I say to you, rise, and take up your bed, and go your way to your house.’ Immediately he rose, picked up the bed, and went out in front of them all, so that they were all amazed and glorified God, saying, “We never saw anything like this!’” Mark 2:1-12
“One of the Pharisees asked Him to eat with him. So He went to the Pharisee’s house and sat down for supper. There, a woman of the city who was a sinner, when she learned that Jesus was sitting for supper in the Pharisee’s house, brought an alabaster jar of ointment, and stood behind Him at His feet, weeping, and began to wash His feet with tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head, AND KISSED HIS FEET, and anointed them with the ointment. Now when the Pharisee who had invited Him saw it, he said to himself, ‘If this Man were a prophet, He would have known who and what kind of woman she is who is touching Him, for she is a sinner.’ Jesus answered him, ‘Simon, I have something to say to you.’ He said, ‘Teacher, say it.’ ‘A creditor had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. When they had no money to pay, he freely forgave them both. Tell Me, therefore, which of them will love him more?’ Simon answered, ‘I suppose he whom he forgave more.” He said to him, ‘You have judged rightly.’ Then He turned to the woman and said to Simon, ‘Do you see this woman? I entered your house. You gave Me no water for My feet, but she has washed My feet with her tears and wiped them with the hair of her head. You gave Me no kiss, but this woman, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss My feet. You did not anoint My head with oil, but this woman has anointed My feet with ointment. Therefore I say to you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But he who is forgiven little loves little.’ Then He said to her, ‘Your sins are forgiven.’ Those who sat at supper with Him began to say to themselves, ‘WHO IS HE WHO EVEN FORGIVES SINS?’ He said to the woman, ‘Your faith has saved you. Go in peace.’” Luke 7:36-50