In the following articles,
Allah’s Guessing Game (https://answeringislam.net/Shamoun/allahs_ignorance.htm)
Allah Repenting and Changing His Mind (https://answering-islam.org/Responses/Menj/changing_allah.htm)
Allah- The All Guessing and Hopeful One (https://answeringislam.net/authors/shamoun/allah_hopeful.html)
Further Evidence that Allah Cannot be God (https://answeringislam.net/authors/shamoun/rebuttals/williams/allah_not_knowing.html)
Does Allah Repent After All? (https://answeringislam.net/authors/shamoun/rebuttals/ibnanwar/allah_repents.html)
I provided evidence from the Quran that Allah is an ignorant god who doesn’t know all things, and isn’t certain how the future will turn out. In this post, I am going to furnish further proof that Allah is an imperfect deity who is uncertain of the future.
The Quran employs a specific Arabic term asa, which the following lexicon defines as:
Ayn-Siin-Ya = to perhaps, it may well be that, near to doing, hope/desire (Project Root List http://www.studyquran.co.uk/2_AYN.htm)
Note how the Islamic scripture uses this word:
Hast thou not considered the Council of the Children of Israel after Moses when they said to a Prophet of theirs: Raise up a king for us, and we will fight in the way of God. He said: Perhaps (ʿasaytum) if fighting was prescribed for you, you would not fight. They said: Why should we not fight in the way of God when we were driven out of our abodes with our children. Then, when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, but for a few of them. And God is Knowing of the ones who are unjust. S. 2:246 (Dr. Laleh Bakhtiar https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/2/st46.htm)
“We have been oppressed,” they said, “before thou camest to us, and since thou hast been with us:” “Perhaps (‘asa),” said he, “your Lord will destroy your enemy, and will make you his successors in the land, and He will see how ye will act therein.” S. 7:129 Rodwell
The man from Egypt who bought him said to his wife, “Take good care of him, perhaps (‘asa) he may be useful to us or we may adopt him as a son.” This is how We established Joseph in the land, so that We might teach him the interpretation of dreams. Allah’s Will always prevails, but most people do not know. S. 12:21 (Dr. Mustafa Khattab, The Clear Quran https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/12/st69.htm)
He said, “Nay, have enticed you your souls something, so patience (is) beautiful. Perhaps (‘asa) Allah, will bring them to me all. Indeed, He He (is) the All-Knower, All-Wise.” S. 12:83
Without adding, “So please God!” and call thy Lord to mind when thou forgettest, and say, “I hope (‘asa) that my Lord will guide me ever closer (even) than this to the right road.” S. 18:24 Y. Ali
Then maybe (fa’asa) my Lord will give me what is better than your garden, and send on it a thunderbolt from heaven so that it shall become even ground without plant, S. 18:40 Shakir
“And I will turn away from you (all) and from those whom ye invoke besides God: I will call on my Lord: perhaps (‘asa), by my prayer to my Lord, I shall be not unblest.” S. 19:48 Y. Ali
And the wife of Fir’aun (Pharaoh) said: “A comfort of the eye for me and for you. Kill him not, perhaps (‘asa) he may be of benefit to us, or we may adopt him as a son.” And they perceive not (the result of that). S. 28:9 Hilali-Khan
And when he turned his face towards Madyan, he said: Maybe (‘asa) my Lord will guide me in the right path. S. 28:22 Shakir
We hope (‘asa) that our Lord will give us in exchange a better (garden) than this. Truly, we turn to our Lord (wishing for good that He may forgive our sins, and reward us in the Hereafter).” S. 68:32 Hilali-Khan
In all these cases, asa is employed in reference to imperfect, fallible human beings who do not know all things, nor are they aware of what Allah has ordained, and are therefore uncertain of the future and of what Allah intends to do with them. As such, it makes sense that the Quran would use such a term in respect to finite, temporal creatures.
However it would make no sense to employ asa in reference to Allah, and yet this is precisely what we find the Islamic scripture doing!
Is prescribed upon you [the] fighting while it (is) hateful to you. But perhaps (waʿasa) [that] you dislike a thing and it (is) good for you; and perhaps (waʿasa) [that] you love a thing and it (is) bad for you. And Allah knows while you (do) not know. S. 2:216
O those who believed! It is not lawful for you that you inherit women unwillingly, and place not difficulties for them (f) so that you take away some of what you gave them (f), unless they approach a manifest indecency. And live as one who is honorable with them (f). Then, if you disliked them (f) perhaps (fa’asa) you dislike something in which God makes much good. S. 4:19 (Bakhtiar https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/4/st46.htm)
So fight in the cause of Allah ˹O Prophet˺. You are accountable for none but yourself. And motivate the believers ˹to fight˺, so perhaps (ʿasa) Allah will curb the disbelievers’ might. And Allah is far superior in might and in punishment. S. 4:84 (The Clear Quran https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/4/st69.htm)
And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, saying: “We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us.” Perhaps (fa’asa) Allah may bring a victory or a decision according to His Will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves. S. 5:52 Hilali-Khan
Only will maintain (the) masajid of Allah (the one) who believes in Allah and the Day the Last, and establishes the prayer and gives the zakah and not fear except Allah. Then perhaps (fa’asa) those, [that] they are of the guided ones. S. 9:18
And (there are) others who have acknowledged their sins, they have mixed a deed that was righteous with another that was evil. Perhaps (‘asa) Allah will turn unto them in forgiveness. Surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. S. 9:102 Hilali-Khan
Perhaps (‘asa) your Lord will have mercy on you. But if you reverted, We will revert.• And We made hell a jail for the ones who are ungrateful. S. 17:8 (Bakhtiar https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/17/st46.htm)
And keep vigil with it in the night as a work of supererogation for thee. Perhaps (‘asa) thy Lord will raise thee up to a station of one who is praised. S. 17:79 Bakhtiar
”Or some created thing that is yet greater (or harder) in your breasts (thoughts to be resurrected, even then you shall be resurrected)” Then, they will say: “Who shall bring us back (to life)?” Say: “He Who created you first!” Then, they will shake their heads at you and say: “When will that be ?” Say: “Perhaps (‘asa) it is near!” S. 17:51 Hilali-Khan
Say: “Perhaps (‘asa) that which you wish to hasten on, may be close behind you.” S. 27:72 Hilali-Chan
As for him who repented and believed and did as one in accord with morality, then, perhaps (fa’asa) he will be among the ones who prosper. S. 28:67 (Bakhtiar https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/28/st46.htm)
Would ye perhaps (‘asaytum), if ye had turned back, have done evil in the land and severed the bonds of kinship? S. 47:22 Palmer
O those who believed! Let not a folk deride another folk. Perhaps (‘asa) they be better than they, nor women deride other women. Perhaps (‘asa) they be better than they. Nor find fault with one another nor insult one another with nicknames. Miserable was the name of disobedience after belief! And whoever repents not, then, those, they are the ones who are unjust. S. 49:11 (Bakhtiar https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/49/st46.htm)
Perhaps (‘asa) Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. S. 60:7 Hilali-Can
Maybe (‘asa), his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him in your place wives better than you, submissive, faithful, obedient, penitent, adorers, fasters, widows and virgins. S. 66:5 Shakir
O you who believe! turn to Allah a sincere turning; maybe (‘asa) your Lord will remove from you your evil and cause you to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the day on which Allah will not abase the Prophet and those who believe with him; their light shall run on before them and on their right hands; they shall say: Our Lord! make perfect for us our light, and grant us protection, surely Thou hast power over all things. S. 66:8 Shakir
Keep in mind that Muslims believe that the Quran is the uncreated speech of Allah, and therefore it is Allah who is supposed to be speaking or narrating these verses. This means it is Allah who is being depicted as not knowing what the future will unfold, which is why all he can say is “perhaps” or “maybe,” showing that Allah can only wish that things will turn out a certain way, or that people will respond the way he hopes for.
Therefore, instead of depicting Allah as a perfectly omniscient deity, the Muslim scripture portrays Muhammad’s god as an ignorant, imperfect being who can only hope that things will turn out his way, and who actually learns and grows in knowledge as the future unfolds.