We have arrived at the final part of my rebuttal: https://answeringallah.com/challenges-for-one-message-foundation-pt-3/
CHALLENGE REGARDING THE TORAH
The Muhammadans at One Message Foundation believe that the Quran only confirms the original Torah given to Moses, and not the Pentateuch followed by Jews and Christians today. Therefore, my challenge to these polemicists is rather simple. Quote a single verse where the Quran explicitly claims that the Torah was given to Moses.
Appealing to the Islamic tradition won’t help these Muhammadans since the Muslim sources teach that the term Torah was used more loosely to refer to all of the scriptures of the Jews and Christians.
For instance, here’s what Ibn Kathir stated in respect to Q. 7:157:
… Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Muthanna said that `Ata’ bin Yasar said, “I met `Abdullah bin `Amr and asked him, `Tell me about the description of Allah’s Messenger in the Tawrah.’ He said, `Yes, by Allah! He is described in the Tawrah, just as he is described in the Qur’an …
(O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as a witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.) [33:45] as a safe refuge for the unlettered ones. “You are My servant and Messenger. I have called you ‘Al-Mutawakkil’ (who trusts in Allah), not hard or harsh.’ Neither uttering foul speech in the markets nor returning evil deed with one in kind. Rather, he forgives and forgoes. Allah will not end his life until He straightens through him the crooked religion, so that they might proclaim, ‘There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ He will open through him sealed hearts, deaf ears and blind eyes.”’’ `Ata’ then said, “I also met Ka`b and asked him the same question, and his answer did not differ from `Abdullah’s answer, even concerning one letter.” Al-Bukhari recorded it from ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr. It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari [up to the word] forgoes. And he mentioned the narration of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr then he said: “It was COMMON in the speech of our Salaf that they describe the Books of the People of the Two Scriptures AS THE TAWRAH, as some Hadiths concur. Allah knows best.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged), Volume 4, (Surat Al-Ar’af to the end of Surah Yunus), abridged by a group of scholars under the supervision of Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh, Houston, New York, Lahore; First Edition: May 2000], p. 179 http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/7/157; bold and capital emphasis mine)
And here is what he wrote elsewhere:
And it should be recognized that many of our forebears used to apply the word “Torah” to the books of the peoples of the scriptures. These are in their view more comprehensive than those God revealed to Moses. This fact is attested from the hadith. (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], Volume I, p. 237; bold emphasis mine)
The translator of the English version of Sahih al-Bukhari included the words Old Testament within parentheses next to the word Torah in the following narration, which seems to be citing Isaiah 42:
Narrated Ata bin Yasar:
I met Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-‘As and asked him, “Tell me about the description of Allah’s Apostle which is mentioned in Torah (i.e. Old Testament).” He replied, “Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Quran as follows:
‘O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah’s True religion) and a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), and a warner (to the unbelievers) and guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you “Al-Mutawakkil” (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh Nor a noise-maker in the markets And you do not do evil to those Who do evil to you, but you deal With them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) Die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,” with which will be opened blind eyes and deaf ears and enveloped hearts.’” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 34, Number 335 https://sunnah.com/bukhari/34/77)
Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan realized that in this particular context Torah could not be a reference to Moses’ book and would have been fully aware that the Salaf taught, he could see that Abdullah was clearly using it in relation to the other prophetic writings found in the Old Testament.
In fact, here is what he and another Salafi scholar wrote in in the comments to Q. 7:157 found in their Quranic translation:
(1) (V. 7:157) There is in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), even after the original text has been distorted, clear prophecies indicating the coming of Prophet Muhammad, e.g. Deut. 18:18, 21:21; Psl. 118:22-23; Isa. 42:1-13; Hab. 3:3-4; Matt. 21:42-43; Jn. 14:12-17, 26-28, 16:7-14. (Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur’an in the English Language From Surah 6 to 9 [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh, Lahore, Houston and New York], Part 2, p. 221)
Another hadith translator concurs with this broader use of the term Torah:
(4a) Chapter: Belief in the Divine Decree – Section 1
Abu Huraira reported that God’s messenger told of Adam and Moses holding a disputation in their Lord’s presence and of Adam getting the better of Moses in argument. Moses said, “You are Adam whom God created with His hand, into whom He breathed of His spirit, to whom He made the angels do obeisance, and whom He caused to dwell in His garden; then because of your sin you caused mankind to come down to the earth.” Adam replied, “And you are Moses whom God chose to deliver His messages and to address, to whom He gave the tablets on which everything was explained, and whom He brought near as a confidant. How long before I was created did you find that God has written the Torah?” 1 Moses said, “Forty years.” Adam asked, “Did you find in it, ‘And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred’?” 2 On being told that he did, he said, “Do you then blame me for doing a deed which God had decreed that I should do forty years before He created me?” God’s messenger said, “So Adam got the better of Moses in argument.”
Muslim transmitted it.
1 At-Taurat, a general name for the first five books of the Old Testament.
2 These words are in Quran, xx, 121.
Grade: Sahīh (Zubair `Aliza’i)
Reference: Mishkat al-Masabih 81
In-book reference: Book 1, Hadith 75 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/mishkat/1/75; underline emphasis mine)
I now reference a list of Quranic translators who were/are honest to admit that the Taurat could refer to all of OT prophetic writings, some of whom even identify the Injil as the New Testament/Bible!
*5:44 The Torah is a collection OF ALL THE SCRIPTURES revealed through all the prophets of Israel prior to Jesus Christ, i.e., TODAY’S OLD TESTAMENT. NOWHERE in the Quran do we find THAT THE TORAH WAS GIVEN TO MOSES. (Rashad Khalifa, Quran: The Final Testament https://www.masjidtucson.org/quran/frames/ch5fn.html#44; capital emphasis mine)
005:044 The Torah is known as the name of the book given to Moses. However, this common knowledge might be wrong. The Quran nowhere mentions that the Torah was given to Moses. The word Torah occurs 18 times in the Quran and it refers to the collection of books given to Jewish prophets excluding the Injeel delivered by Jesus. Though the name of the book(s) given to Moses is not mentioned, it is described with various adjectives such as Furqan (the distinguisher), Emam (the leader), Rahma (mercy), Noor (light) and Huda (guidance).
There is ample scholarly work indicating that current books of the Old Testament were extensively tampered with and written by Ezra and other rabbis. See 2:59; 2:79; 9:30-31. Also, see the Old Testament, Jeremiah 8:8. (Quran: A Reformist Translation, Translated and Annotated by Edip Yuksel, Layth Saleh al-Shaiban Martha Schulte-Nafeh [Brainbrow Press, 2007], p. 121 http://www.studyquran.org/resources/Quran_Reformist_Translation.pdf; underline emphasis mine)
We had Jesus, the son of Mary, follow in their footsteps in order to confirm what had come before him from the Torah and We gave him the Gospel which contains guidance and Light, to confirm what he already had in the Old Testament, and as guidance and a lesson for those who do their duty. S. 5:46 (T. B. Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/5/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine)
God has bought up their persons and their property from believers, so they may have the Garden [instead). They fight for God’s sake; they kill and are killed as a rightful promise from Him [to be found] in the Old Testament, the Gospel and the Quran. Who is more Trustworthy with His word than God? … S. 9:111 (Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/9/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine)
So Jesus the son of Mary said: “Children of Israel, I am God’s messenger to you, confirming whatever came before me in the Testament and announcing a messenger coming after me whose name will be Ahmad.” Yet when he brought them explanations, they said: “This is sheer magic!” S. 61:6 (Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/61/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine)
Those who are laden with the Old Testament, yet do not carry it out may be compared to a donkey who is carrying scriptures. S. 62:5 (Irving https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/62/st47.htm; bold emphasis mine emphasis mine)
He descended on you The Book with the truth, confirming to what (is) BETWEEN HIS HANDS, and He descended the Torah and the New Testament/Bible. From before guidance to the people, and He descended the Separator of Right and Wrong/Koran, that those who disbelieved with God’s verses, for them (is) a strong (severe) torture, and God (is) glorious/mighty, (owner) of a revenge/punishment. S. 3:3-4 (Muhammad Ahmed – Samira https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/3/st19.htm; bold emphasis mine)
And how (do) they ask you to judge/rule, and at them (is) the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, in it (is) God’s judgment/rule, then they turn away from after that, and those are not with the believing. That We descended the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, in it (is) guidance and light, the prophets those who submitted/surrendered, judge/rule with it, to those who guided/Jews, and the knowledgeable Lord worshippers, and the religious scholars with what they memorized/safe kept (learned) from God’s Book, and they were not on it witnessing/present; so do not fear the people and fear Me, and do not buy/volunteer with My signs/verses a small price, and who does not judge/rule with what God descended, so those, they are the disbelievers. And We wrote/decreed on them in it, that the self (is) with the self, and the eye (is) with the eye, and the nose (is) with the nose, and the ear (is) with the ear, and the tooth (is) with the tooth, and the wounds/cuts (are) equal revenge/punishment equal to crime, so who gave charity (forgave) with it, so it is cover/substitution for him, and who does not judge/rule with what God descended, so those, those are the unjust/oppressors. And We sent after (following) on their tracks with Jesus, Mary’s son confirming for what (is) BETWEEN HIS HANDS from the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, and We gave him the NEW TESTAMENT/BIBLE in it (is) guidance and light, and confirming to what (is) BETWEEN HIS HANDS from the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, and guidance and a sermon/advice/warning to the fearing and obeying. And the NEW TESTAMENT’S/BIBLE’S people should judge/rule with what God descended in it, and who does not judge/rule with what God descended, so those, they are the debauchers. S. 5:43-47 (Ahmed – Samira https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/5/st19.htm; bold emphasis mine)
“Those who follow the messenger, the prophet the illiterate/belonging to a nation, whom they find him written at them in the Torah/OLD TESTAMENT, and the NEW TESTAMENT/BIBLE…” S. 7:157 (Ahmed – Samira https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/7/st19.htm; bold emphasis mine)
“THE FOLLOWERS of THE OLD TESTAMENT demand of thee [O Prophet] that thou cause a revelation to be sent down to from heaven…” S. 4:153 (Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Quran https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/4/st20.htm; bold emphasis mine)
The Islamic tradition depicts Allah and Muhammad as sexual perverts and deviants that make Satan blush.
ALLAH PREDESTINES ADULTERY AND RAPE
According to the sunni ahadith, the following passage was composed to justify the raping of female captives, including married ones:
Also (prohibited are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess: Thus hath God ordained (Prohibitions) against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek (them in marriage) with gifts from your property, – desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their dowers (at least) as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree Mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you, and God is All-knowing, All-wise. S. 4:24 Y. Ali
Abu Said al-Khudri said: The apostle of Allah sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the Companions of the Apostle of Allah were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives in the presence of their husbands who were unbelievers. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Quranic verse, ‘And all married women (are forbidden) unto you save those (captives) whom your right hands possess’. That is to say, they are lawful for them when they complete their waiting period.
Grade: SAHIH (Al-Albani) (Sunan Abu Dawud, Volume 2, Number 2150 https://sunnah.com/abudawud/12/110; emphasis mine)
(3) 3016. Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri said: “On the Day of Awtas, we captured some women who had husbands among the idolaters. SO SOME OF THE MEN DISLIKED THAT, so Allah, Most High, revealed: ‘And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess….’” (Sahih)
[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan. (https://sunnah.com/urn/740150)
(4) 3017. Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri said: “we captured some women on the Day of Awtas and they had husbands among their people. That was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah so Allah revealed: ‘…And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess….” (Sahih)
[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan.
This is how it was reported by Ath-Thawri, from ‘Uthman Al-Batti, from Abu Al-Khalil, from Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri from the Prophet and it is similar. “From Abu ‘Alqamah” is not in this Hadith and I do not know of anyone who mentioned Abu ‘Alqamah in this Hadith except in what Hammam mentioned from Qatadah. Abu Al-Khalil’s name is Salih bin Abi Mariam. (English Translation of Jami‘ At-Tirmidhi, Compiled by Imam Hafiz Abu ‘Eisa Mohammad Ibn ‘Eisa At-Tirmidhi, From Hadith No. 544 to 1204, translated by Abu Khaliyl (USA), ahadith edited and referenced by Hafiz Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, First Edition: November 2007], Volume 5, From Hadith No. 2606 to 3290, Chapter 4. Regarding Surat An-Nisa’, pp. 331-332: https://sunnah.com/urn/740160; emphasis mine)
The allegedly sound ahadith further report that Muhammad taught that Allah has predestined the amount of adultery a person must necessarily commit:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
I did not see anything so resembling minor sins as what Abu Huraira said from the Prophet, who said, “Allah has written for the son of Adam his INEVITABLE share of adultery whether he is aware of it or not: The adultery of the eye is the looking (at something which is sinful to look at), and the adultery of the tongue is to utter (what it is unlawful to utter), and the innerself wishes and longs for (adultery) and the private parts turn that into reality or refrain from submitting to the temptation.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 77, Number 609)
Verily Allah has fixed the very portion of adultery which a man will indulge in, and which he OF NECESSITY MUST COMMIT (or there would be no escape from it). (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6421; see also Number 6422)
This brings me to my next point.
MUTA: ISLAMIC PROSTITUTION
The hadiths of Muhammad claim that Q. 4:24 and 5:87 were sent down to sanction temporary marriages, which is nothing other than prostitution:
We used to participate in the holy wars carried on by the Prophet and we had no women (wives) with us. So we said (to the Prophet). “Shall we castrate ourselves?” But the Prophet forbade us to do that and thenceforth he allowed us to marry a woman (temporarily) by giving her even a garment, and then he recited: “O you who believe! Do not make unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 139)
We used to participate in the holy battles led by Allah’s Apostle and we had nothing (no wives) with us. So we said, “Shall we get ourselves castrated?” He forbade us that and then allowed us to marry women with a temporary contract and recited to us: — ‘O you who believe! Make not unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, but commit no transgression.’ (5.87) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 13o)
“‘Mut’ah marriage involves a man hiring a woman for a specific amount of money, for a certain period of time, to have sex with her. The scholars agree that this Mut’ah marriage was authorized in the beginning of Islam. It is reported that when the Prophet came to Mecca to perform ‘umrah, the women of Mecca dressed up and adorned themselves. The companions complained to the Prophet that they had not had sex for a long time, so he said to them: ‘Enjoy these women.’” (Ar-Razi, At-tafsir al-kabir, Q. 4:24)
“No Muslim disputes that Mut’ah marriage was allowed in early Islam, the difference is whether it has been abrogated or not.” (Ibid.)
The hadith collections confirm that there was debate regarding whether this practice had been abrogated, since it was being practiced all the way to the time of Umar’s caliphate:
Narrated Abu Jamra:
I heard Ibn Abbas (giving a verdict) when he was asked about the Mut’a with the women, and he permitted it (Nikah-al-Mut’a). On that a freed slave of his said to him, “That is only when it is very badly needed and women are scarce.” On that, Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Yes.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 51)
Ibn Uraij reported: ‘Ati’ reported that Jabir b. Abdullah came to perform ‘Umra, and we came to his abode, and the people asked him about different things, and then they made a mention of temporary marriage, whereupon he said: Yes, we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet and during the time of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3248)
Abu Nadra reported: While I was in the company of Jabir b. Abdullah, a person came to him and said that Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Zubair differed on the two types of Mut’a (Tamattu’ of Hajj 1846 and Tamattu’ with women), whereupon Jabir said: We used to do these two during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). Umar then forbade us to do them, and so we did not revert to them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3250)
‘Urwa b. Zubair reported that ‘Abdullah b. Zubair (Allah be pleased with him) stood up (and delivered an address) in Mecca saying: Allah has made blind the hearts of some people as He has deprived them of eyesight that they give religious verdict in favour of temporary marriage, while he was alluding to a person (Ibn ‘Abbas). Ibn Abbas called him and said: You are an uncouth person, devoid of sense. By my life, Mut’a was practised during the lifetime of the leader of the pious (he meant Allah’s Messenger, may peace be upon him), and Ibn Zubair said to him: Just do it yourselves, and by Allah, if you do that I will stone you with your stones. Ibn Shihab said. Khalid b. Muhajir b. Saifullah informed me: While I was sitting in the company of a person, a person came to him and he asked for a religious verdict about Mut’a and he permitted him to do it. Ibn Abu ‘Amrah al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) said to him: Be gentle. It was permitted in the early days of Islam, (for one) who was driven to it under the stress of necessity just as (the eating of) carrion and the blood and flesh of swine and then Allah intensified (the commands of) His religion and prohibited it (altogether). Ibn Shihab reported: Rabi’ b. Sabra told me that his father (Sabra) said: I contracted temporary marriage with a woman of Banu ‘Amir for two cloaks during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him); then he forbade us to do Mut’a. Ibn Shihab said: I heard Rabi’ b. Sabra narrating it to Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz and I was sitting there. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3261)
One narration even says that, during the caliphate of Umar, a woman got pregnant as a result of Muta:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Khawla ibn Hakim came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said, “Rabia ibn Umayya made a temporary marriage with a woman and she is pregnant by him.” Umar ibn al-Khattab went out in dismay dragging his cloak, saying, “This temporary marriage, had I come across it, I would have ordered stoning and done away with it!” (Malik’s Muwatta, Book 28, Number 28.18.42)
Renowned Sunni exegete and historian al-Tabari claimed that Umar rescinded his prohibition:
According to Muhammad b. Ishaq – Yahya b. Ma’in – Ya’qub b. Ibrahim – ‘Isa b. Yazid b. Da’b – ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Zayd – ‘Imran b. Sawdah: I said the morning prayer with ‘Umar, and he recited the Subhan chapter and one other. Then he left. I went off with him, and he asked if there was anything he could do. I told him there was, so he asked me to join him. I did so and, when he entered [his house], he gave me permission [to enter]. There he was on a bed with nothing on it. I told him I wanted to give him some advice. His reply was, “The person giving good advice is welcome anytime.” I said, “Your community finds fault with you on four counts.” (‘Umar) put the top of his whip in his beard and the lower part on his thigh. Then he said, “Tell me more.” I continued, “It has been mentioned that you declared the lesser pilgrimage forbidden during the months of the [full] pilgrimage. The Messenger of God did not do this, nor did Abu Bakr, though it is permitted.” He answered, “It is permitted. If they were to perform the lesser pilgrimage during the months of the pilgrimage, they would regard it as being in lieu of the full pilgrimage, and (Mecca) would be a deserted place that year, and the pilgrimage would be celebrated by no one, although it is part of God’s greatness. You are right.” I continued, “It is also said that you have forbidden temporary marriage, although it was a license (rukhsah) given by God. We enjoy temporary marriage for a handful [of dates], and we can separate after three nights.” He replied, “The Messenger of God permitted it at a time of necessity. Then people regained their life of comfort. I do not know of any Muslim who has practiced this or gone back to it. Now anyone who wishes can marry for a handful [of dates] and separate after three nights. You are right.” I continued, “You emancipate a slave girl if she gives birth, without her master’s [consent to] the emancipation.” He replied, “I added one thing that is forbidden to another, intending only to do some good. I ask God’s forgiveness.” I continued, “There have been complaints of your raising your voice against your subjects and your addressing them harshly.” He raised his whip, then ran his hand down it right to the end. Then he said, “I am Muhammad’s traveling companion”- he [in fact] sat behind him at the raid on Qarqarat al-Kudr… (The History of al-Tabari: The Conquest of Iran, translated by G. Rex Smith [State University of New York Press, Albany, 1994], Volume XIV, pp. 139-140; bold emphasis mine)
I have one final installment left: https://answeringallah.com/challenges-for-one-message-foundation-pt-5/