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How Many Gods Are There in the Quran?

Another Case of Polytheism in the Muslim Scripture Due to it’s Incoherent Structure

In a previous article ( I showed that, due to the unintelligible manner that the author(s) and/or editor(s) formulated the sentence, the following text,

In order that you (O people!) may believe in Allah and His Messenger and that you may help and honor Him, and celebrate His Praises morning and evening. S. 48:9 Syed Vickar Ahamed

so that you² may have faith in God and His apostle and that you may assist Him, honour Him, and praise Him morning and evening. N. J. Dawood

Is either commanding Muslims to glorify/praise/worship Muhammad as a god, or depicting Allah as an impotent deity that needs help from his creatures.

This isn’t the only verse which, as a result of its incoherent structure, either deifies Muhammad or depicts the Islamic deity in a less than favorable manner. Note carefully this next passage:

Glorified be HE WHO (alathee) carried HIS servant (bi’abdiHI) by night from the Inviolable Place of Worship to the Far distant place of worship the neighbourhood whereof WE have blessed, that WE might show HIM (linuriyaHU) of OUR tokens! Lo! HE (innaHU), only HE (huwa), is THE HEARER, THE SEER. S. 17:1 Pickthall

Here is another version:

Glory be to HIM, WHO carried HIS servant by night from the Holy Mosque to the Further Mosque the precincts of which WE have blessed, that WE might show HIM some of Our signs. HE is the ALL-HEARING, the ALL-SEEING. Arberry

Now either the singular masculine pronouns all refer to Allah, which means that the passage should be translated in the following way:

Glory be to Allah, who carried Allah’s servant by night from the Holy Mosque to the Further Mosque the precincts of which We have blessed, that We might show Allah some of Our signs. Allah is the all-hearing, the all-seeing.

Or the pronouns are all about Muhammad, which would therefore give us the following rendering:

Glory be to Allah, Who carried His servant Muhammad by night from the Holy Mosque to the Further Mosque the precincts of which We have blessed, that We might show Muhammad some of Our signs. Muhammad is the all-hearing, the all-seeing.

If the former then this means Allah is not the only god nor is he the supreme being, since there are other deities that can actually show Allah miraculous signs.

This wouldn’t be the only place where Allah is depicted as a plurality of divine beings, or as one god among many:

Clear proofs have come to you from your Lord. Whoso sees clearly, it is to his own gain, and whoso is blind, it is to his own loss; I am not a watcher over you. So WE turn about the signs, that they may say, ‘Thou hast studied’; and that WE may make it clear to a people having knowledge. Follow thou what has been revealed to thee from thy Lord; there is no god but He; and turn thou away from the idolaters. Had God willed, they were not idolaters; and WE have not appointed thee a watcher over them, neither art thou their guardian. Abuse not those to whom they pray, apart from God, or they will abuse God in revenge without knowledge. So WE have decked out fair to every nation their deeds; then to their Lord they shall return, and He will tell them what they have been doing. They have sworn by God the most earnest oaths if a sign comes to them they will believe in it. Say: ‘Signs are only with God.’ What will make you realize that, when it comes, they will not believe? WE shall turn about their hearts and their eyes, even as they believed not in it the first time; and WE shall leave them in their insolence wandering blindly. Though WE had sent down the angels to them, and the dead had spoken with them, had WE mustered against them every thing, face to face, yet they would not have been the ones to believe, unless God willed; but most of them are ignorant. So WE have appointed to every Prophet an enemy — Satans of men and jinn, revealing tawdry speech to each other, all as a delusion; yet, had thy Lord willed, they would never have done it. So leave them to their forging, and that the hearts of those who believe not in the world to come may incline to it, and that they may be well-pleased with it, and that they may gain what they are gaining. What, shall I seek after any judge but God? For it is He who sent down to you the Book well-distinguished; and those whom WE have given the Book know it is sent down from thy Lord with the truth; so be not thou of the doubters. S. 6:104-114 Arberry


And heaven — WE built it with might, and WE extend it wide. And the earth — WE spread it forth; O excellent Smoothers! And of everything created WE two kinds; haply you will remember. Therefore flee unto God! I AM a clear warner from Him to you. And set not up with God another god; I AM a clear warner from Him to you. S. 51:47-51 Arberry

The context makes it crystal clear that all of the first person singular and plural pronouns are spoken by one and the same entity which, in context, is supposed to be Allah since the speaker(s) does/do things that only the Muslim god is said to do. And yet the speaker(s) say(s) that he/they are a clear warner(s) from Allah, whose only judge is Allah, and who is not sent to be anyone’s watcher(s)/guardian(s).

We even find texts where the supposed divine speaker(s) worship Allah as his/their lord and claim that he/they can only come down with the revelations at the command of Muhammad’s lord:

It is not for God to take a son unto Him. Glory be to Him! When He decrees a thing, He but says to it ‘Be,’ and it is. Surely God is MY Lord, and your Lord; So serve you Him. This is a straight path. S. 19:35-36

WE come not down, save at the commandment of thy Lord. To Him belongs all that is before US, and all that is behind US, and all between that. S. 19:64

If so then this means that Allah either exists as a plurality of divine beings, with some of these gods being subordinate to the others. Or the Muslim scripture is acknowledging the existence of a hierarchy of distinct gods, with Allah being subject to at least one of them whom he worships as his lord and superior.

However, if Q. 17:1 is actually talking about Muhammad then this means that he is the one described as being both omniscient and omnipresent. This in turn makes Muhammad a man-god, either because he was a human being that became a god or a divine one that became a man!

Hence, as a result of this passage’s incoherence, Muslims either end up with Allah existing as a hierarchy of divine beings, or as a lesser god subordinate to a greater deity than himself. Or they must accept the fact that Muhammad is portrayed as an omniscient, omnipresent being, and is therefore another ilah or divinity alongside the Muslim god.

We will let the Muslims sort out this mess caused by a so-called revelation that is supposed to be the peak of Arabic grammar and eloquence.

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