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Is Michael the Ruler of Israel? Further Proof that Jesus isn’t an Archangel Pt. 4

I arrive at the final part of my series (

According to Hebrews, God will not subject the world to come, i.e., the new heavens and earth, to angelic creatures, but will place all things under Christ and the human beings that he has redeemed:

For it is not to angels that he has subjected the inhabited earth to come, about which we are speaking. But in one place a certain witness said: ‘What is man that you keep him in mind, or a son of man that you take care of him? You made him a little lower than angels; you crowned him with glory and honor, and appointed him over the works of your hands. All things you subjected under his feet.’ By subjecting all things to him, God left nothing that is not subject to him. Now, though, we do not yet see all things in subjection to him. But we do see Jesus, who was made a little lower than angels, now crowned with glory and honor for having suffered death, so that by God’s undeserved kindness he might taste death for everyone… Therefore, since the ‘young children’ are sharers of blood and flesh, he also similarly shared in the same things, so that through his death he might bring to nothing the one having the means to cause death, that is, the Devil, and that he might set free all those who were held in slavery all their lives by their fear of death. For it is not really angels he is assisting, but he is assisting Abraham’s offspring.” Hebrews 2:5-9, 14-16

The Apostle Paul is quite clear. Christ has become a flesh and blood human being in order to identify with the very people he has come to save. Christ even went as far as to share the fallen state of humanity by placing himself lower than the angels positionally, in order to then elevate the redeemed over the angelic host, whom God created to serve mankind (cf. 1:7, 14; Rev. 19:10; 22:8-9).

This once again shows that Jesus cannot be a created angelic being. Since Jesus was made a little lower than the angels then he himself cannot be an angel, otherwise, this would imply that Jesus became a little lower than himself. And ever since his resurrection and ascension into heaven, where he is now seated alongside the Father as the sovereign Lord over all creation,

“And after he had made a purification for our sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. So he has become better than the angels to the extent that he has inherited a name more excellent than theirs.” Hebrews 1:3b-4

“Jesus approached and spoke to them, saying: ‘All authority has been given me in heaven and on the earth.’” Matthew 28:18

“He sent out the word to the sons of Israel to declare to them the good news of peace through Jesus Christ—this one is Lord of all.” Acts 10:36

“For to this end Christ died and came to life again, so that he might be Lord over both the dead and the living.” Romans 14:9

“and how surpassing the greatness of his power is toward us believers.t It is according to the operation of the mightiness of his strength, which he exercised toward Christ when he raised him up from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, FAR ABOVE every government and authority and power and lordship and EVERY NAME that is named, not only in this system of things but also in that to come. He also subjected all things under his feet and made him head over all things with regard to the congregation, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills up all things in all.” Ephesians 1:19-23

“to observe the commandment in a spotless and irreprehensible way until the manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ, which the happy and only Potentate will show in its own appointed times. He is the King of those who rule as kings and Lord of those who rule as lords, the one alone having immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see. To him be honor and eternal might. Amen.” 1 Timothy 6:14-16

“Baptism, which corresponds to this, is also now saving you (not by the removing of the filth of the flesh, but by the request to God for a good conscience), through the resurrection of Jesus Christ. He is at God’s right hand, for he went to heaven, and angels and authorities and powers were made subject to him.” 1 Peter 3:21-22

“and from Jesus Christ, ‘the Faithful Witness,’ ‘the firstborn from the dead,’ and ‘the Ruler of the kings of the earth.’…” Revelation 1:5a

Christ has become superior to all angelic creatures in status and position, which once more shows that he cannot be a created angel, and therefore cannot be the archangel Michael.

Moreover, since none of the angels will be given the authority to rule the world to come, and since that world shall be subject to Christ as he reigns over it alongside his Father and redeemed human beings:

“… To him who loves us and who set us free from our sins by means of his own blood—and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father—yes, to him be the glory and the might forever. Amen.” Revelation 1:5b-6

“And to the one who conquers and observes my deeds down to the end, I will give authority over the nations, and he will shepherd the people with an iron rod so that they will be broken to pieces like clay vessels, just as I have received from my Father. And I will give him the morning star.” Revelation 2:26-28

“To the one who conquers I will grant to sit down with me on my throne, just as I conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.” Revelation 3:21

“And they sing a new song, saying: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll and open its seals, for you were slaughtered and with your blood you bought people for God out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, and you made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God, and they are to rule as kings over the earth.’” Revelation 5:9-10

“I saw heaven opened, and look! a white horse. And the one seated on it is called Faithful and True, and he judges and carries on war in righteousness. His eyes are a fiery flame, and on his head are many diadems. He has a name written that no one knows but he himself, and he is clothed with an outer garment stained with blood, and he is called by the name The Word of God. Also, the armies in heaven were following him on white horses, and they were clothed in white, clean, fine linen. And out of his mouth protrudes a sharp, long sword with which to strike the nations, and he will shepherd them with a rod of iron. Moreover, he treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. On his outer garment, yes, on his thigh, he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.” Revelation 19:11-16 – cf. 17:14

And I saw thrones, and those who sat on them were given authority to judge. Yes, I saw the souls of those executed for the witness they gave about Jesus and for speaking about God, and those who had not worshipped the wild beast or its image and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand. And they came to life and ruled as kings with the Christ for 1,000 years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the 1,000 years were ended.) This is the first resurrection. Happy and holy is anyone having part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no authority, but they will be priests of God and of the Christ, and they will rule as kings with him for the 1,000 years.” Revelation 20:4-6

“And he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, running out of the throne of God and the Lamb through the middle of its main avenue; and on this side of the river and on that side were trees of life producing twelve crops of fruit, bringing in their fruit each month; and the leaves of the trees were for curing the diseases of the nations. And there will no longer be any ban. And the throne of God and the Lamb will be in it; and his servants, his name on their foreheads, will worship him and see his face. And there will no longer be night, and they do not need lamplight and sunlight, because the Lord God will light them; and they will reign forever and ever.” Revelation 22:1-5 The Bible in Living English (

This simply provides additional confirmation that Jesus and Michael cannot be the same Person.

The final line of evidence that Jesus is not Michael again comes from the book of Hebrews.

In Hebrews, the inspired author cites specific Old Testament texts to describe the Son as the immutable Creator and Sustainer of all creation whom all angels worship. The passages that he employs to make this point are truly remarkable:

“Now at the end of these days he has spoken to us by means of a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the systems of things. He is the reflection of God’s glory and the exact representation of his very being, and he sustains all things by the word of his power… But when he again brings his Firstborn into the inhabited earth, he says: ‘And let ALL of God’s angels do obeisance to him.’ Also, he says about the angels: ‘He makes his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.’ But about the Son, he says… ‘At the beginning, O Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the works of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; and just like a garment, they will all wear out, and you will wrap them up just as a cloak, as a garment, and they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will never come to an end.’” Hebrews 1:2-3a, 6-a, 10-12

Here, Jesus is described as the Agent of creation who sustains all things by his powerful word.

Christ is further said to be the exact representation of God’s very own Being, a Being which is infinite and uncreated. This in itself sufficiently refutes the Arian claim that Christ is Michael since no finite, temporal creature can be the exact representation or copy of God’s infinite, eternal substance, a fact confirmed by the following Psalms:

There is none like you among the gods, O Jehovah, There are no works like yours. All the nations that you made Will come and bow down before you, O Jehovah, And they will give glory to your name. For you are great and do wondrous things; You are God, you alone.” Psalm 86:8-10

“The heavens praise your marvels, O Jehovah, Yes, your faithfulness in the congregation of the holy ones. For who in the skies can compare to Jehovah? Who among the sons of God is like Jehovah? God is held in awe in the council of holy ones; He is grand and awe-inspiring to all who are around him. O Jehovah God of armies, Who is mighty like you, O Jah? Your faithfulness surrounds you.” Psalm 89:5-8

Here is a break down of the import of the foregoing texts:

  1. None of the heavenly creatures of God, i.e. angels, are like Jehovah, can compare to Jehovah, are mighty as Jehovah, or can do the works that Jehovah does in the same manner that Jehovah does them.
  2. Jesus is exactly like Jehovah, and is just as mighty as Jehovah since he can do all that Jehovah does in the exact same way that Jehovah does them:

“For this reason the Jews were persecuting Jesus, because he was doing these things during the Sabbath. But he answered them: ‘My Father has kept working until now, and I keep working.’ This is why the Jews began seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath but he was also calling God his own Father, making himself equal to God. Therefore, in response Jesus said to them: ‘Most truly I say to you, the Son cannot do a single thing of his own initiative, but only what he sees the Father doing. For WHATEVER things that One does, these things the Son DOES ALSO IN LIKE MANNER. For the Father has affection for the Son and shows him all the things he himself does, and he will show him works greater than these, so that you may marvel. For just as the Father raises the dead up and makes them alive, so the Son also makes alive whomever he wants to.’” John 5:16-21

  1. As such, Jesus cannot be a heavenly creature but must instead be Jehovah God Almighty, and therefore one with the Father in essence.

This explains why Paul could take the following Psalm, which describes Jehovah as the unchanging Creator and Sustainer of all creation,

“O Jehovah, hear my prayer; Let my cry for help reach you… But you remain forever, O Jehovah, And your fame will endure for all generations… I said: ‘O my God, Do not do away with me in the middle of my life, You whose years span all generations. Long ago you laid the foundations of the earth, And the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; Just like a garment they will all wear out. Just like clothing you will replace them, and they will pass away. But you are the same, and your years will never end.’” Psalm 102:1, 12, 24-27

And attribute it to the Lord Jesus, by having the Father himself praise and glorify his Son with the words of this very Psalm!

The Apostle has even applied the following OT texts, where all of the angels are commanded to worship Jehovah,

“Let all those serving any carved image be put to shame, Those who boast about their worthless gods. Bow down to him, all you gods.” Psalm 97:7

Let all that worship graven images be ashamed, who boast of their idols; worship him, all you his angels. Psalm 96:7 LXX

Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him; for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will render vengeance, and recompense justice to his enemies, and will reward them that hate him; and the Lord shall purge the land of his people. Deuteronomy 32:43 Brenton’s LXX

Deuteronomy 32:43 is an unusual verse in view of its contents. As the list of variant readings shows, 4QDeut-supported by the Septuagint-differs markedly from the Masoretic Text and the Samaritan Pentateuch. For example, in the Qumran scroll it is “the heavens” which rejoice, not the nations; and God will avenge the blood of “his sons,” not “his servants.” Moreover, the mention of gods “bowing down to God” and “recompensing those who hate him” is absent from the Masoretic Text and the Samaritan Pentateuch. This very provides a striking example of the very different readings that sometimes appear in the Dead Sea Scrolls…

Rejoice, O heavens, together with him, and bow down to him all you godsfor he will avenge the blood of his sons, and will render vengeance to his enemies, and will recompense those who hate him and will atone for the land of his people. (Abegg, Flint & Ulrich, Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English, pp. 192, 193; bold emphasis ours)(1)

To the Son being worshiped by all of God’s angelic hosts!

Once again, this creates problems for Arian heretics and cultists such as Stafford. In the original context, this was a command given to all of the angels to worship Jehovah God. As such, the archangel Michael would be one of those angels ordered to worship Jehovah. (1)

And since Hebrews now applies this to the Son, this means that Jesus is being differentiated from all of God’s angels, including Michael, and is instead being identified as the very God whom Michael and the other angels worship and serve.

Note the logical implications of Paul’s use of this text in reference to the Son:

In the Hebrew Bible, all the angels are ordered to worship Jehovah.

The archangel Michael would naturally be included in this command as well.

Paul interprets this command as God ordering all of the angelic host to worship his Firstborn Son.

Since God orders all the angels to worship Christ, and since this also includes Michael, the Son cannot be an angelic creature, and therefore cannot be the archangel.

Rather, Jesus Christ is being identified as the very God whom all the angels must worship and serve.

Jesus is, therefore, the One whom Michael worships and serves as his very own God and Creator.

In fact, the Bible is quite clear that angelic creatures are not to be worshiped since they are spirit beings created to serve God and the human heirs of salvation:

“Also, he says about the angels: ‘He makes his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.’… Are they not all spirits for holy service, sent out to minister for those who are going to inherit salvation?” Hebrews 1:7, 14

“At that I fell down before his feet to worship him. But he tells me: ‘Be careful! Do not do that! I am only a fellow slave of you and of your brothers who have the work of witnessing concerning Jesus. Worship God! For the witness concerning Jesus is what inspires prophecy.’” Revelation 19:10

“Well I, John, was the one hearing and seeing these things. When I heard and saw them, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who had been showing me these things. But he tells me: ‘Be careful! Do not do that! I am only a fellow slave of you and of your brothers the prophets and of those observing the words of this scroll. Worship God.’” Revelation 22:8-9

That the Son is worshiped by all of God’s angels, in fact by the entire creation,

“And I heard EVERY CREATURE in heaven and on earth and underneath the earth and on the sea, and ALL THE THINGS IN THEM, saying: ‘To the One sitting on the throne AND TO THE LAMB be the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might forever and ever.’ The four living creatures were saying: ‘Amen!’ and the elders fell down and worshipped.” Revelation 5:13-14

Simply provides even more irrefutable proof that Jesus is not a mere creature, and therefore cannot be Michael.

Rather, Christ is depicted as the very eternal Creator and Sustainer of all creation, namely, Jehovah God Almighty, who is one with the Father and the Holy Spirit in glory, power and majesty.

In other words, according to the God-breathed Scriptures, the risen Lord of glory is the God of Michael, the very One who created and gives life to the archangel and to the rest of creation.

Unless noted otherwise, biblical citations are taken from the New World Translation (NWT) of the Jehovah’s Witnesses (


(1) Ironically, in one of his online articles, Greg Stafford states that Hebrews 1:6 is citing Deuteronomy 32:43:

“… See also Hebrews 1:6 for the LXX quotation of Deuteronomy 32:43, which uses “angels” for “gods.”…” (Greg Stafford, The Letter of Jude: A New Translation According to the Text of P 72, p. 5

The reason this is so ironic is that he fails to see how this admission ends up refuting his claim that Jesus is the archangel Michael, and further fails to appreciate how this actually identifies Jesus as Jehovah God Almighty in the flesh.

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