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Is The Quran God’s Word?

I am writing this post and the subsequent parts to be read with a series of YouTube sessions I plan on doing, proving that the Quran is not the word of the true God. Rather, it is an incoherent, unintelligible book filled with gross errors and major contradictions. I will be posting links to the YouTube videos at the end of each section.

THE QURAN CLAIMS TO BE A FULLY DETAILED BOOK

Thus doth God MAKE CLEAR His Signs to you: In order that ye may understand. S. 2:242 Y. Ali

And thus do We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) IN DETAIL, that the way of the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners), may become manifest. S. 6:55 Hilali-Khan

It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea. We have (indeed) explained IN DETAIL Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, Revelations, etc.) for people who know. It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and has given you a place of residing (on the earth or in your mother’s wombs) and a place of storage [in the earth (in your graves) or in your father’s loins]. Indeed, We have EXPLAINED IN DETAIL Our revelations (this Qur’an) for people who understand. S. 6:97-98

Thus We explain variously the Verses so that they (the disbelievers) may say: “You have studied (the Books of the people of the Scripture and brought this Qur’an from that)” and that We may make the matter clear for the people who have knowledge. S. 6:105 Hilali-Khan

[Say (O Muhammad)] “Shall I seek a judge other than Allah while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book (The Qur’an), EXPLAINED IN DETAIL.” Those unto whom We gave the Scripture [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth. So be not you of those who doubt. S. 6:114 Hilali-Khan

And this is the Path of your Lord (the Qur’an and Islam) leading Straight. We have DETAILED Our Revelations for a people who take heed. S. 6:126

Say (O Muhammad): “Who has forbidden the adoration with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for his slaves, and At-Taiyibat [all kinds of Halal (lawful) things] of food?” Say: “They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) exclusively for them (believers) on the Day of Resurrection (the disbelievers will not share them).” Thus We explain the Ayat (Islamic laws) IN DETAIL for people who have knowledge. S. 7:32 Hilali-Khan

Certainly, We have brought to them a Book (the Qur’an) which We have explained IN DETAIL WITH KNOWLEDGE, – a guidance and a mercy to a people who believe. S. 7:52 Hilali-Khan

Thus do We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) IN DETAIL, so that they may turn (unto the truth). S. 7:174 Hilali-Khan

But if they repent, perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, then they are your brethren in religion. (In this way) We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) IN DETAIL for a people who know. S. 9:11

And this Qur’an is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it [i.e. the Taurat (Torah), and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.], and A FULL EXPLANATION of the Book (i.e. laws and orders, etc, decreed for mankind) – wherein there is no doubt from the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns, and all that exists). S. 10:37 Hilali-Khan

Alif Lam Ra. This is a Book, whose verses have been made firm and free from imperfection and then they have been expounded in detail. It is from One Wise, and All-Aware. S. 11:1 Shakir

Indeed in their stories, there is a lesson for men of understanding. It (the Qur’an) is not a forged statement but a confirmation of Allah’s existing Books [the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel) and other Scriptures of Allah] and A DETAILED EXPLANATION OF EVERYTHING and a guide and a Mercy for the people who believe. S. 12:111

  1. L. R. These are the Ayatsof Revelation, – of a Qur’an that makes things clear. S. 15:1 Y. Ali

One day We shall raise from all Peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves: and We shall bring thee as a witness against these (thy people): and We have sent down to thee the Book EXPLAINING ALL THINGS, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims. S. 16:89 Y. Ali

And indeed We know that they (polytheists and pagans) say: “It is only a human being who teaches him (Muhammad).” The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is a clear Arabic tongue. S. 16:103 Hilali-Khan

He sets forth for you a parable from your ownselves, – Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your slaves) to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you? Whom you fear as you fear each other? Thus do We explain the signs IN DETAIL to a people who have sense. S. 30:28 Hilali-Khan

A Book whereof the Verses are explained IN DETAIL; A Qur’an in Arabic for people who know. S. 41:3 Hilali-Khan

Here is another version of this last passage:

A scripture whose verses PROVIDE THE COMPLETE DETAILS, in an Arabic Quran, for people who know. Khalifa

And here are two more verses:

We verily, have made it a Qur’an in Arabic, that you may be able to understand (its meanings and its admonitions). S. 43:3 Hilali-Khan

By the manifest Book (this Qur’an) THAT MAKES THINGS CLEAR, S. 44:2 Hilali-Khan – cf. Q. 2:187, 219, 266; 3:103, 118; 4:26, 176; 5:89; 24:18, 58-59, 61; 57:17

With the foregoing in view, I am now going to test the Quran’s claim to being a perspicuous scripture the provides a full exposition of all things.

WHO EXACTLY IS GABRIEL?

The Quran nowhere says that Gabriel is an angel, but rather distinguishes him from the angels:

Who is an enemy to Allah, AND His angels AND His messengers, AND Gabriel AND Michael! Then, lo! Allah (Himself) is an enemy to the disbelievers. S. 2:98

If ye twain turn unto Allah repentant, (ye have cause to do so) for your hearts desired (the ban); and if ye aid one another against him (Muhammad) then lo! Allah, even He, is his Protecting Friend, AND Gabriel AND the righteous among the believers; and furthermore the angels are his helpers.

Neither does the Muslim scripture identify Gabriel as the Spirit, since the Spirit is distinguished from all the angels:

He sendeth down the angels WITH the Spirit of His command unto whom He will of His bondmen, (saying): Warn mankind that there is no God save Me, so keep your duty unto Me. S. 16:2

(Whereby) the angels AND the Spirit ascend unto Him in a Day whereof the span is fifty thousand years. S. 70:4

On the day when the angels AND the Spirit stand in ranks, they speak not, saving him whom the Beneficent alloweth and who speaketh right. S. 78:38

The angels AND the Spirit descend therein, by the permission of their Lord, with all decrees. S. 97:4

In case a Muslim wishes to argue that according to Q. 2:97, Gabriel came down (nazzala) with the revelation, s/he needs to be reminded that the verb doesn’t necessarily mean descending from the heavens above, just as the following verses affirm:

O children of Adam, we have sent down (anzalna) unto you apparel, to conceal your nakedness, and fair garments; but the cloathing of piety is better. This [is one] of the signs of God; that peradventure ye may consider. S. 7:26 Sale

And when thou and they who [shall be] with thee, shall go up into the ark, say, praise be unto God, who hath delivered us from the ungodly people! And say, o Lord, cause me to come down (anzilnee) [from this ark] with a blessed descent (munzalan); for thou art best able to bring me down (al-munzileena) [from the same with safety]. S. 23:28-29 Sale

And He brought down (Wa’anzala) those of the People of the Book who supported them from their fortresses and cast terror in their hearts; some you slew, some you made captive. S. 33:26 Arberry

He created you (all) from a single person: then created, of like nature, his mate; and he sent down (wa’anzala) for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. such is God, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god but He: then how are ye turned away (from your true Centre)? S. 39:6 Y. Ali

Who exactly, then, is Gabriel?

ARE ISHMAEL, ISAAC AND JACOB BROTHERS OR SONS OF ONE ANOTHER?

The author(s) of the Quran didn’t have a clue about the exact relationship between Ishmael, Isaac, and Jacob. In fact, the producer(s) of the Islamic scripture wasn’t even aware of who Ishmael’s mother was since the Quran mentions only refers to one wife of Abraham, namely, the mother of Isaac:

And Our messengers came unto Abraham with good news. They said: Peace! He answered: Peace! and delayed not to bring a roasted calf. And when he saw their hands reached not to it, he mistrusted them and conceived a fear of them. They said: Fear not! Lo! we are sent unto the folk of Lot. And his wife, standing by laughed when We gave her good tidings (of the birth) of Isaac, and, after Isaac, of Jacob.S. 11:69-71

Praise be to Allah Who hath given (wahaba) me, in my old age, Ishmael and Isaac! Lo! my Lord is indeed the Hearer of Prayer. S. 14:39

That is Our argument, which We bestowed upon Abraham as against his people. We raise up in degrees whom We will; surely thy Lord is All-wise, All-knowing. And We gave (wa’ wahabna) to him Isaac and Jacob — each one We guided, And Noah We guided before; and of his seed David and Solomon, Job and Joseph, Moses and Aaron — even so We recompense the good-doers –S. 6:83-84

So, when he had withdrawn from them and that which they were worshipping beside Allah, We gave him (wahabna) Isaac and Jacob. Each of them We made a prophet. S. 19:49

Note that the language is identical in all of these verses. Allah gave Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob to Abraham. Now this either means that Isaac and Jacob were brothers, just like Ishmael and Isaac were, or Ishmael was the father of Isaac, just like the latter was the father of Jacob.

But the confusion gets much worse since in this next example the compiler(s) of the Quran claim that Isaac and Jacob were actually given to Lot!

But Lot believed him; and HE said, ‘I will flee to my Lord; He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.’ And We gave (wa’wahabna) HIM Isaac and Jacob, and We appointed the Prophecy and the Book to be among HIS seed; We gave HIM HIS wage in this world, and in the world to come HE shall be among the righteous. And Lot, when he said to his people ‘Surely you commit such indecency as never any being in all the world committed before you. S. 29:26-27

WHAT ABOUT ADAM?

As if it couldn’t get any worse, the Quran nowhere mentions the name of Adam’s wife and even fails to tell us the names of his first two sons:

Recite to them the truth of the story of the two sons of Adam. Behold! they each presented a sacrifice (to God): It was accepted from one, but not from the other (al-akhari)Said the latter: “Be sure I will slay thee.” “Surely,” said the former, “God doth accept of the sacrifice of those who are righteous. If thou dost stretch thy hand against me, to slay me, it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee: for I do fear God, the cherisher of the worlds. For me, I intend to let thee draw on thyself my sin as well as thine, for thou wilt be among the companions of the fire, and that is the reward of those who do wrong.” The (selfish) soul of the other led him to the murder of his brother: he murdered him, and became (himself) one of the lost ones. Then God sent a raven, who scratched the ground, to show him how to hide the shame of his brother. “Woe is me!” said he; “Was I not even able to be as this raven, and to hide the shame of my brother?” then he became full of regrets – S. 5:27-32

Besides failing to give the names of Adam’s two sons, the narrative doesn’t even bother to specify whether the sacrifices of the two brothers were different, or whether they offered the same type of sacrifice. And not only does this passage fail to provide these details, but the Islamic scripture also doesn’t even know who killed who, i.e., was it the older sibling that murdered the younger or vice-versa?

In fact, the narrative seems to be suggesting that it was the younger brother who killed the older one! The word al-akhari can denote that which is later, and hence the translator’s inserting the term “the latter” in his English version. Note how this word is used in the following passages:

And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the Last (al-akhiri) Day, when they believe not. S. 2:8 Pickthall

(Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later (okhara). For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will, – it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew. S. 2:184 Y. Ali

Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Allah, Lord of us! Send down for us a table spread with food from heaven, that it may be a feast for us, for the first of us and for the last of us (wa’akhirina), and a sign from Thee. Give us sustenance, for Thou art the Best of Sustainers. S. 5:114 Pickthall

He will say: “Enter ye in the company of the peoples who passed away before you – men and jinns, – into the Fire.” Every time a new people enters, it curses its sister-people (that went before), until they follow each other, all into the Fire. Saith the last (okhrahum) about the first: “Our Lord! it is these that misled us: so give them a double penalty in the Fire.” He will say: “Doubled for all” : but this ye do not understand.Then the first will say to the last (li-okhrahum): “See then! No advantage have ye over us; so taste ye of the penalty for all that ye did!” S. 7:38-39 Y. Ali

And We left (this blessing) for him among generations to come in later times ( al-akhireena): S. 37:78 Y. Ali

“We never heard (the like) of this among the people of these latter days (al-akhirati ): this is nothing but a made-up tale!” S. 38:7 Y. Ali

and a crowd of those of the latter day (al-akhireena)! S. 56:40 Palmer

Therefore, the plain reading implies that it was the son that came later that killed the other, which means that the Quran is erroneously suggesting that Abel actually killed Cain since the former was the latter child according to the Holy Bible.

As a side note, it is interesting to read how the murdered son’s sins were imputed to his brother that murdered him, thereby turning the latter into a sort of scapegoat who bears the transgressions of another. In fact, here’s how the late Jewish convert and Muslim scholar/translator Muhammad Asad rendered the verse in question:

I am willing, indeed, for thee to bear [the burden of] all the sins ever done by me as well as of the sin done by thee: 36  [but] then thou wouldst be destined for the fire, since that is the requital of evildoers!” S. 5:29 (Asad, The Message of the Qur’an http://www.alim.org/library/quran/surah/english/5/ASD#29; bold and italicized emphasis mine)

And here’s his note:

Lit., “my sin as well as thy sin”. It is evident from several well-authenticated ahadith that if a person dies a violent death not caused, directly or indirectly, by his own sinful actions, his previous sins will be forgiven (the reason being, evidently, that he had no time to repent, as he might have done had he been allowed to live). In cases of unprovoked murder, the murderer is burdened – in addition to the sin of murder – with the sins which his innocent victim might have committed in the past and of which he (the victim) is now absolved: this CONVINCING INTERPRETATION of the above verse has been advanced by Mujahid (as quoted by Tabari). (Ibid. http://www.alim.org/library/quran/surah/english/5/ASD#ayanote-36; bold and capital emphasis mine)

I continue building my case that the Quran cannot be the word of the true God (https://answeringislamblog.wordpress.com/2020/01/02/is-the-quran-gods-word-pt-1/).

What is the Mother of the Book?

According to the following passage,

He it is who has revealed to thee the Book, of which there are some verses that are decisive, they are the mother of the Book (ummu al-kitab); and others ambiguous; but as for those in whose hearts is perversity, they follow what is ambiguous, and do crave for sedition, craving for (their own) interpretation of it; but none know the interpretation of it except God. But those who are well grounded in knowledge say, ‘We believe in it; it is all from our Lord; but none will remember save those who possess minds. S. 3:7 Palmer

The verses that are clear are said to be the mother of the book (umm al-kitab). It may shock the readers to discover that Muhammad called the first Surah of the Quran, titled al-Fatiha, the mother of book, a chapter that contains only seven verses!

I: What has come regarding the Fatiha of the Book

It is called the “Mother of the Book” because it is the first to be written in copies of the Qur’an and the first to be recited in the prayer. “Deen” means repayment, in both good and evil, from the verb, “to repay, be in debt” (dâna, yadînu). (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of Al-Bukhari, Chapter 68. Book of Tafsir https://bewley.virtualave.net/bukhari30.html)

Which was revealed in Makkah

The Meaning of Al-Fatihah and its Various Names

This Surah is called Al-Fatihah, that is, the Opener of the Book, the Surah with which prayers are begun. – It is also called, Umm Al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book), ACCORDING TO THE MAJORITY OF THE SCHOLARS.

In AN AUTHENTIC HADITH recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said…

Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin is the Mother of the Qur’an, the Mother of the Book, and the seven repeated Ayat of the Glorious Qur’an…

The Reason it is called Umm Al-Kitab

In the beginning of the Book of Tafsir, in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari said; “It is called Umm Al-Kitab, because the Qur’an starts with it and because the prayer is started by reciting it.” It was also said that it is called Umm Al-Kitab, because it contains the meanings of the entire Qur’an. Ibn Jarir said, “The Arabs call every comprehensive matter that contains several specific areas an Umm. For instance, they call the skin that surrounds the brain, Umm Ar-Ra’s. They also call the flag that gathers the ranks of the army an Umm.” He also said, “Makkah was called Umm Al-Qura, (the Mother of the Villages) because it is the grandest and the leader of all villages. It was also said that the earth was made starting from Makkah.’’

Further, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated about Umm Al-Qur’an that the Prophet said…

(It is Umm Al-Qur’an, the seven repeated (verses) and the Glorious Qur’an.)

Also, Abu Ja`far, Muhammad bin Jarir At-Tabari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Messenger of Allah said about Al-Fatihah,

(It is Umm Al-Qur’an, Al-Fatihah of the Book (the Opener of the Qur’an) and the seven repeated (verses).) (Tafsir Ibn Kathir http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/1/0; capital emphasis mine)

What this means is that only these seven verses are clear, and all the rest of the verses are Quran are ambiguous whose meanings are known only to Allah!

The Reason Why Q. 3:7 Was “Revealed”

According to the Islamic expositors, the following verses,

It is He who has sent down to you (Muhammad) the book (this Qur’an). In it are Verses absolutely clear, they are the basis of the book; and others are not entirely clear. As for those in whose hearts there is deviation (from the truth), they follow what is unclear thereof, seeking mischief, and seeking for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: “We believe in it, all from our Lord.” None will heed except the people of understanding. S. 3:7 (Abdul Hye https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/3/st75.htm)

It is He who has sent down to you the Book. Some of its verses are precise in meaning they are the foundation of the Book and others obscure. Those whose hearts are swerving with disbelief, follow the obscure desiring sedition and desiring its interpretation, but no one knows its interpretation except Allah. Those who are wellgrounded in knowledge say: ‘We believe in it, it is all from our Lord. And none remember except those who are possessed of minds. (Hasan al-Fatih Qaribullah https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/3/st16.htm)

Was actually “sent down” in response to Muhammad’s debate with a group of Arab Christians from Najran:

One of Sunni Islam’s renowned commentators Ibn Kathir concurs with all the above and also had this to say about the sixth verse:

Which was revealed in Al-Madina

Surah Al `Imran was revealed in Al-Madinah, as evident by the fact that the first eighty-three Ayat in it relate to the delegation from Najran that arrived in Al-Madinah on the ninth year of Hijrah (632 CE). We will elaborate on this subject when we explain the Ayah about the Mubahalah [3:61] in this Surah, Allah willing. We should also state that we mentioned the virtues of Surah Al `Imran along with the virtues of Surat Al-Baqarah in the beginning of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/3/0)

(He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He wills.)… meaning, He creates you in the wombs as He wills, whether male or female, handsome or otherwise, happy or miserable.

(La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Almighty, the All-Wise.) meaning, He is the Creator and thus is the only deity worthy of worship, without partners, and His is the perfect might, wisdom and decision. This Ayah refers to the fact that `Isa, son of Mary, is a created servant, just as Allah created the rest of mankind. Allah created `Isa in the womb (of his mother) and shaped him as He willed. Therefore, how could `Isa be divine, as the Christians, may Allah’s curses descend on them, claim `Isa was created in the womb and his creation changed from stage to stage… (Ibid. http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/3/5)

The Christians were using Muhammad’s own affirmation that Jesus is Allah’s Word and Spirit to prove Christ’s essential Deity. This prompted Muhammad to come up with Q. 3:7 in order to prevent these Christians from using Muhammad’s own so-called revelations by arguing that those verses of the Quran, which describe Jesus as the Word and Spirit of Allah are among the unclear, ambiguous passages whose meanings no one knows except Allah!

Note, for instance, what renowned Muslim scholar and historian al-Tabari wrote:

OPINION: Some of them said: This verse referred to the Christian delegation from Najran, which came to the Messenger of God to debate with him over what they debated and argue with him, saying, “Do you not claim that Jesus is the Spirit of God and His Word?”1 They interpreted [these words] in a manner consistent with their statement of disbelief.

An account of those who said that:

Al-Muthanna – Ibn Ishaq – Ibn Abi Ja’far – his father – al-Rabi’: “They were resolute-meaning the Christian delegation from Najran that came to the Messenger of God-and they argued with the Prophet, saying, ‘Do you not claim that [Jesus] is the Word of God and a Spirit from Him?’ [The Prophet said] replied, ‘BUT, OF COURSE!’ They said, ‘This is sufficient for us!’ Then God (Mighty and Majesty is He) sent down, But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue that which is ambiguous of it, seeking (to cause) dissension. Then God (Majestic is His praise) sent down the verse [beginning with] Truly the likeness of Jesus with respect to God is as the likeness of Adam (Q. 3:59).”2

1 Jesus is described as His Word and a Spirit from Him in Q. 4:171.

2 According to Suyuti, this mursal hadith from al-Rabi’ is found elsewhere only in the Qur’anic commentary of Ibn Abi Hatim; al-Durr al-manthur, 2:10. (Tabari: Selections from The Comprehensive Exposition of the Interpretation of the Verses of the Qur’an, translated by Scott C. Lucas [The Royal Aal Al-Bayt Institute For Islamic Thought and The Islamic Texts Society, 2017], Volume 1, p. 229; capital emphasis mine)

And here’s what Ibn Kathir wrote:

(they follow that which is not entirely clear thereof) meaning, they refer to the Mutashabih, because they are able to alter its meanings to conform with their false interpretation since the wordings of the Mutashabihat encompass such a wide area of meanings. As for the Muhkam Ayat, they cannot be altered because they are clear and, thus, constitute unequivocal proof against the misguided people. This is why Allah said…

(seeking Al-Fitnah) meaning, they seek to misguide their following by pretending to prove their innovation by relying on the Qur’an — the Mutashabih of it — but, this is proof against and not for them. For instance, Christians might claim that (`Isa is divine because) the Qur’an states that he is Ruhullah and His Word, which He gave to Mary, all the while ignoring Allah’s statements…

(He (`Isa) was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him.) (43:59), and…

(Verily, the likeness of `Isa before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: “Be!” and he was.) (3:59).

There are other Ayat that clearly assert that `Isa is but one of Allah’s creatures and that he is the servant and Messenger of Allah, among other Messengers. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/3/7; bold emphasis mine)

And here’s his exposition of Q. 3:61:

The reason for the call to Mubahalah and the revelation of the Ayat from the beginning of this Sarah until here, is that a delegation from the Christians of Najran (in Yemen) came to Al-Madinah to argue about `Isa, claiming that he was divine and the son of Allah. Allah sent down the beginning of this Surah until here, to refute their claims, as Imam Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar and other scholars stated.

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said in his famous Sirah, “The delegation of Christians from Najran came to the Messenger of Allah. The delegation consisted of sixty horsemen, including fourteen of their chiefs who make decisions. These men were Al-`Aqib, also known as `Abdul-Masih, As-Sayyid, also known as Al-Ayham, Abu Harithah bin `Alqamah, of ﴿the family of﴾ Bakr bin Wa`il and Uways bin Al-Harith. They also included, Zayd, Qays, Yazid, Nabih, Khuwaylid, `Amr, Khalid, `Abdullah and Yuhannas. Three of these men were chiefs of this delegation, Al-`Aqib, their leader and to whom they referred for advice and decision; As-Sayyid, their scholar and leader in journeys and social gatherings; and Abu Harithah bin `Alqamah, their patriarch, priest and religious leader. Abu Harithah was an Arab man from ﴿the family of﴾ Bakr bin Wa`il, but when he embraced Christianity, the Romans and their kings honored him and built churches for him (or in his honor). They also supported him financially and gave him servants, because they knew how firm his faith in their religion was.” Abu Harithah knew the description of the Messenger of Allah from what he read in earlier divine Books. However, his otherwise ignorance led him to insist on remaining a Christian, because he was honored and had a high position with the Christians. Ibn Ishaq said, “Muhammad bin Ja`far bin Az-Zubayr said that, `The (Najran) delegation came to the Messenger of Allah in Al-Madinah, entered his Masjid wearing robes and garments, after the Prophet had prayed the `Asr prayer. They accompanied a caravan of camels led by Bani Al-Harith bin Ka`b. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah who saw them said that they never saw a delegation like them after that… Then Abu Harithah bin `Alqamah and Al-`Aqib `Abdul-Masih or As-Sayyid Al-Ayham spoke to the Messenger of Allah , and they were Christians like the king (Roman King). However, they disagreed about `Isa; some of them said, `He is Allah,’ while some said, `He is the son of Allah,’ and some others said, `He is one of a trinity.’ Allah is far from what they attribute to Him.’’

Indeed, these are the creeds of the Christians. They claim that `Isa is God, since he brought the dead back to life, healed blindness, leprosy and various illnesses, told about matters of the future, created the shape of birds and blew life into them, bringing them to life. However, all these miracles occurred by Allah’s leave, so that `Isa would be a sign from Allah for people.

They also claim that `Isa is the son of Allah, since he did not have a father and he spoke when he was in the cradle, a miracle which had not occurred by any among the Children of Adam before him, so they claim. They also claim that `Isa is one of a trinity, because Allah would say, `We did, command, create and demand.’ They said, `If Allah were one, he would have said, `I did, command, create and decide.’ This is why they claim that `Isa and Allah are one (Trinity). Allah is far from what they attribute to Him, and we should mention that the Qur’an refuted all these false Christian claims.

Ibn Ishaq continued, “When these Ayat came to the Messenger from Allah , thus judging between him and the People of the Book, Allah also commanded the Prophet to call them to the Mubahalah if they still refused the truth. The Prophet called them to the Mubahalah. They said, `O Abu Al-Qasim! Let us think about this matter and get back to you with our decision to what we want to do.’ They left the Prophet and conferred with Al-`Aqib, to whom they referred to for advice. They said to him, `O `Abdul-Masih! What is your advice’ He said, `By Allah, O Christian fellows! You know that Muhammad is a Messenger and that he brought you the final word regarding your fellow (`Isa). You also know that no Prophet conducted Mubahalah with any people, and the old persons among them remained safe and the young people grew up. Indeed, it will be the end of you if you do it. If you have already decided that you will remain in your religion and your creed regarding your fellow (`Isa), then conduct a treaty with the man (Muhammad) and go back to your land.’ They came to the Prophet and said, `O Abu Al-Qasim! We decided that we cannot do Mubahalah with you and that you remain on your religion, while we remain on our religion. However, send with us a man from your Companions whom you are pleased with to judge between us regarding our monetary disputes, for you are acceptable to us in this regard.’”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Hudhayfah said, “Al-`Aqib and As-Sayyid, two leaders from Najran, came to the Messenger of Allah seeking to invoke Allah for curses (against whoever is unjust among them), and one of them said to the other, `Let us not do that. By Allah, if he were truly a Prophet and we invoke Allah for curses, we and our offspring shall never succeed afterwards.’ So they said, `We will give you what you asked and send a trusted man with us, just a trusted man.’… (Ibid. http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/3/59; bold emphasis mine)

What the foregoing indicates is that no Muslim can ever explain what it means for Jesus to be the Word and Spirit of Allah, since no Muslim, not even Muhammad, knows or can know the interpretation of these titles seeing that they are a part of those obscure and unclear passages whose exact interpretation is known only by Allah.

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