According to the ahadith, both Muhammad and the true prophets of God physically died and their souls are supposed to be alive in their graves. Note, for instance, the following texts and reports:
Muhammad is but a messenger, messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. Will it be that, when he dieth or is slain, ye will turn back on your heels? He who turneth back on his heels doth no hurt to Allah, and Allah will reward the thankful. S. 3:144 Pickthall
The Messiah, son of Marium is but an apostle; apostles before him have indeed passed away; and his mother was a truthful woman; they both used to eat food. See how We make the communications clear to them, then behold, how they are turned away. S. 5:75 Shakir
Thou truly shall die, O Muhammad, and they too shall die: S. 39:30 Rodwell
Aus bin Aus reported:
The Messenger of Allah said, “Among the best of your days is Friday; so supplicate Allah more often for me in it, for your supplications will be displayed to me.” He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah! How will our blessings be displayed to you when your decayed body will have mixed with the earth?” He replied, “Allah has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of the Prophets.”
Sunnah.com reference: Book 15, Hadith 3
Arabic/English book reference: Book 15, Hadith 1399
Abu Hurairah reported:
The Messenger of Allah said, “Do not make my grave a place of festivity, and supplicate Allah for me, for your SUPPLICATION reaches me wherever you are.”
Sunnah.com reference: Book 15, Hadith 5
Arabic/English book reference: Book 15, Hadith 1401
Abu Hurairah reported:
The Messenger of Allah said, “Whenever someone greets me, Allah returns the soul to my body (in the grave) and I return his greeting.”
Sunnah.com reference: Book 15, Hadith 6
Arabic/English book reference: Book 15, Hadith 1402 (Riyad as-Salihin, “The Book of Supplicating Allah to Exalt the Mention of Allah’s Messenger,” https://sunnah.com/riyadussaliheen/15; capital, italicized and underline emphasis mine)
20 The Book of Qiyam Al-Lail (The Night Prayer) and Voluntary Prayers During the Day
(15) Chapter: Mentioning the prayer of Prophet Musa and the different reports from Sulaiman At-Taimi about it
It was narrated that Anas bin Malik said:
“The Messenger of Allah said: ‘On the night on which I was taken on the Night Journey, I passed by Musa and he was praying in his grave.’”
Grade: SAHIH (Darussalam)
Reference: Sunan an-Nasa’i 1634
In-book reference: Book 20, Hadith 37
English translation: Vol. 2, Book 20, Hadith 1635 (sunnah.com https://sunnah.com/nasai/20/37; capital and underline emphasis mine)
And here’s what a Muslim website states:
4) Anas ibn Malik narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “The Prophets are alive in their graves performing Salat” (Recorded by al-Bayhaqi in his ‘Hayat al-Anbiya’ and Abu Ya’la in his Musnad).
The above Hadith has been authenticated by many Hadith scholars, such as: Ibn Hajar, al-Haythami, Ali al-Qari, al-Munawi, al-Shawkani and others.
5) Aws ibn Aws narrates the Messenger of Allah as saying: “Send salutations in abundance on me on Friday, as your sending salutations are presented to me. The Companions inquired: “How is it possible that you receive our salutations when your body will have been decayed? The Messenger of Allah said: “Verily Allah has made forbidden on the earth that it eats the bodies of the Prophets” (Recorded by Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Darami and others, and authenticated by many, such as Ibn al-Qayyim)…
7) Anas ibn Malik narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “The Prophets are not kept in their graves for more than forty nights, but they remain worshiping Allah until the trumpet will be blown” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi).
Due to the fact that there are many narrations regarding the living of the Prophets (of which only a few have been reproduced as an example), Imam al-Suyuti is of the view that these narrations have reached the level of certainty (tawatur).
8) The great Hadith master, Hafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani states: “Death will never come to the blessed Messenger of Allah in his grave, rather he will remain alive, due to the fact that the Prophets remain alive in their graves” (Fath al-Bari, 17/22).
9) Imam al-Subki states: “It is from our beliefs that the Prophets are alive in their graves”. (Tabqat al-Shafi’iyya al-Kubra, 6/266).
10) The great Hanafi jurist, Allama Ibn Abidin says: “The Prophets are alive in their graves, as proven from the Hadith” (Rasa’il of Ibn Abidin, 2/203).
11) Imam al-Shawkani (whom the Salafis normally refer to) states: “The Prophet is alive in his grave, as has been established in the Hadith “The Prophets are alive in their graves”. (See: Nayl al-Awtar, 5/101). (Are the Prophets alive in their graves Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Daruliftaa.com https://islamqa.org/hanafi/daruliftaa/8533)
Jesus, on the other hand, is said to be physically alive with Allah himself, who is supposed to be above the entire creation:
Behold! God said: “O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection: Then shall ye all return unto me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute. S. 3:55 Yusuf Ali
Nay! Allah raised him (in his physical body) towards Him, [after He Himself gave him death (see 3/55; 4/157, 158 5/17, 117, 118 19/33, 34 21/8, 34, 35; 33/40)]. And Allah is All-Powerful, All-Wise [and protected Iesa’s body from lynching, desecration, or exhumation (see 3/55) at the hands of the disbelievers]. S. 4:158 Dr. Kamal Omar https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/4/st48.htm
The following Islamic site candidly admits that, whereas the prophets are dead and buried here on earth, Jesus is still alive with his body and soul in heaven:
It was narrated in an authentic report that the Prophet said: “The Prophets are alive in their graves and they pray.” (Narrated by al-Bazzaar; classed as authentic by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 2790). This prayer is something that they are blessed with just as the people of Paradise are blessed with tasbeeh (glorifying Allaah).
They are in their graves APART FROM ‘EESA (JESUS), WHOM ALLAAH RAISED UP INTO HEAVEN, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“But they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them [the resemblance of ‘Eesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man)], and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not [i.e. ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)]:
But Allaah raised him [‘Eesa (Jesus)] up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens). And Allaah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.”
With regard to the Prophets praying behind the Prophet on the night of the Isra’ (Night Journey), they prayed behind him in spirit, but their bodies were in their graves. The same applies to his seeing the Prophets during the Mi’raaj (ascent into heaven), when he saw Adam in the lowest heaven, and ‘Eesa and Yahya in the second heaven, and Yoosuf in the third, and Idrees in the fourth, and Haroon in the fifth, and Moosa in the sixth, and Ibraaheem in the seventh, or vice versa. He saw their souls appear in the shape of their bodies.
Some people say that he saw the same bodies that are buried in the graves, but this view does not carry any weight.
BUT ‘EESA ASCENDED INTO HEAVEN BODY AND SOUL, and the same is said of Idrees.
But with regard to Ibraaheem, Moosa and others, THEY ARE BURIED ON EARTH.
The Messiah will inevitably descend to earth, to the white minaret in the east of Damascus; he will kill the Dajjaal (“Antichrist”), break the cross and kill the pigs, as is proven in the saheeh ahaadeeth (authentic reports). Hence he is in the second heaven even though he is superior to Yoosuf, Idrees and Haroon, because he will descend to the earth before the Day of Resurrection, unlike the other Prophets. And Adam is in the lowest heaven because the souls of his descendents who are blessed (i.e., destined for Paradise) will be shown to him. As for the souls of the doomed (i.e., those who are destined for Hell) the gates of heaven will not be opened for them and they will not enter Paradise until the camel passes through the eye of the needle. So if they will be shown to him, he has to be near them. There is no contradiction in the fact that they prayed behind the Prophet then he met some of them after he was taken up into the heavens, because the souls are like the angels, they may ascend and descend in an instant; they are not like bodies.
Adapted from Majmoo’ al-Fataawa by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, 4/328-329. (IslamQA.com, “The Lives of the Prophets” https://islamqa.info/en/answers/26117/the-lives-of-the-prophets; capital emphasis mine)
‘Eesaa ibn Maryam is alive; he has not died up till now. The Jews did not kill him or crucify him; rather it was caused to appear that way to them. ALLAH TOOK HIM UP TO HEAVEN, BODY AND SOUL, AND UNTIL NOW HE IS IN HEAVEN. The evidence for that is the words of Allah, may He be exalted, concerning the fabrication of the Jews and the refutation thereof (interpretation of the meaning):
Thus Allah, may He be glorified, declared false the words of the Jews when they claimed that they had killed him and crucified him, and He stated that He took him up to Him. That was mercy from Him to him, and was an honour to him, so that he would be one of his signs, an honour that He bestows upon whomever He will of His Messengers. How many signs of Allah there are in the story of ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam, from beginning to end. The implication of the words “But Allah raised him (‘Eesaa (Jesus)) up (WITH HIS BODY AND SOUL) unto Himself” is that Allah, may He be glorified, TOOK ‘EESAA UP NODY AND SOUL, so as to refute the claim of the Jews that they crucified him and killed him, because killing and crucifying have to do with the physical body. Moreover, if He had only taken up his soul, that would not rule out the claim of having killed and crucified him, because taking up the soul only would not be a refutation of their claim. Also the name of ‘Eesaa, in reality, refer to him IN BOTH SOUL AND BODY TOGETHER; it cannot refer to one of them only, unless there is an indication to that effect. Furthermore, taking up both his soul and his body together is indicative of the perfect might and wisdom of Allah, and of His honour and support to whomever He will among His Messengers, according to what He, may He be exalted, says at the end of the verse: “And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.”
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Ghadyaan, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Qa‘ood. End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (3/305-306) (IslamQA.com “Did ‘Eesaa die? Where is he now? And a comment on what is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew,” https://islamqa.info/en/answers/110592/did-eesaa-peace-be-upon-him-die-where-is-he-now-and-a-comment-on-what-is-mentioned-in-the-gospel-of-matthew; capital emphasis mine)
Two corrections are necessary at this point. First, the Quran nowhere claims that Idris was taken to heaven or into the presence of Allah. It merely says that he was elevated:
Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: He was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet: And We raised him to a lofty station. S. 19:56-57 Yusuf Ali
As such, this can refer to his rank, that Allah exalted Idris in position, not that he took him into heaven.
Secondly, the Muslim scripture doesn’t state that Jesus was taken into heaven; rather, as we saw above, the Quran clearly teaches that Allah took Jesus to be with himself wherever he is at. And since Allah is supposed to be above his throne, which is above the seven heavens and seven earths,
Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)! S. 7:54 Hilali-Khan
It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge. S. 65:12 Hilali-Khan
This means that Jesus has been exalted above all creation, making him equal with Allah in his exalted, and therefore superior to all creation, including Muhammad himself!
So Muslims, who do you choose to follow? Muhammad who is dead and buried? Or Jesus, whom even your prophet admitted is alive physically, bodily with Allah above the entire creation?