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More Quranic Proofs for the Deity of Christ

Jesus as the Bearer of Divine Names and Functions

In this article I am going to be examining some of the specific names and qualities, which Islamic theology ascribes to Allah and show how these very same characteristics are attributed to Jesus in the Quran itself. This in turn will prove that the Muslim scripture ends up contradicting itself in so far that it affirms the Deity of Christ, while claiming that he is nothing more than a servant of Allah.

ALLAH

As-Subbûh, Al-Quddûs: The All-Perfect, Utterly Pure

Subbuh is from Subhan, which is glorification and tanzih, disconnecting and elevating Him above any others. He is All-Perfect, All-Pure, All Glorious, far removed from everything evil and imperfect.

Quddus means pure (tahir, munazzah), pure and free of any imperfection .He is far removed from every imperfection or impurity or from anything that would detract from His glory, and disconnected from every description perceived by the senses and thought, All-Holy, All-Pure, All-Perfect.

Some say Subbuh denies imperfection and Quddus affirms perfection.

Al-Quddus is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.

“He is Allah. There is no god but Him. He is the King, the Most Pure.” (59:23)

“Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth glorifies Allah, the King, the Most Pure, the Mighty, the Wise.” (62:1)

At-Tâhir: The Pure

Pure of every bad action and any imperfection or any corporal distinction.

JESUS

The Quran claims that Jesus was perfectly pure from conception:

He said, “I am the messenger of your Lord, to grant you a pure son.”  S. 19:19 Khalifa

He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless son. Pickthall

Here is how some of Islam’s greatest exegetes interpreted this particular text:

Al-Tabari

“… A child who is zakiyyan is one who is pure from sins…” [10th Century AD http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=1&tSoraNo=19&tAyahNo=19&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1]

Al-Baghawi

{… zakiyyan} a righteous son who is pure from sins. [12th Century AD http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=13&tSoraNo=19&tAyahNo=19&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1]

Ar-Razi

“… One who is zakiyy provides the following intentions: First, that he is pure from sins. Second, that he will grow in purity (be a testimonial)…Third, integrity and purity…” [13th Century AD http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=4&tSoraNo=19&tAyahNo=19&tDisplay=yes&Page=2&Size=1&LanguageId=1]

Ibn Al-Jawzi

{… zakiyyan} pure from sins. [13th Century AD http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=15&tSoraNo=19&tAyahNo=19&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1]

Al-Baydawi

{zakiyyan} pure from sins… [14th Century AD http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=6&tSoraNo=19&tAyahNo=19&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1]

Al-Khazin

{… zakiyyan} Ibn Abbas said: a righteous son who is pure from sins. [14th Century AD http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=18&tSoraNo=19&tAyahNo=19&tDisplay=yes&Page=2&Size=1&LanguageId=1]

The ahadith provide further confirmation for Jesus’ being absolutely sinless and perfect:

“They will go to Musa and say, ‘O Musa, you are the Messenger of Allah. Allah preferred you with His message and His Word above all othr people. Intercede with your Lord for us. Do you not see what we are suffering?’ He will say, ‘My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again. I killed a soul which I was not commanded to kill. Go to someone else. Go to ‘Isa.’

“They will go to ‘Isa and say, ‘O ‘Isa! You are the Messenger of Allah and His Word which He cast to Maryam and a spirit from Him. You spoke to people while in the cradle. Intercede with your Lord on our behalf. Do you not see what we are suffering?’ ‘Isa will say, ‘My Lord is angry today with such anger as has never existed before nor will again,’ AND HE DID NOT MENTION A SIN. ‘O my soul! My soul! My soul! Go to someone else. Go to Muhammad.’ (Aisha Bewley, The Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari, Chapter 68. Book of Tafsir https://bewley.virtualave.net/bukhari31.html; bold and capital emphasis ours)

And:

“… Moses would say to them: Verily my Lord is angry as He had never been angry before and would never be angry afterwards. I, in fact, killed a person whom I had not been ordered to kill. I am concerned with myself, I am concerned with myself. You better go to Jesus. They would come to Jesus and would say: O Jesus, thou art the messenger of Allah and thou conversed with people in the cradle, (thou art) His Word which He sent down upon Mary, and (thou art) the Spirit from Him; so intercede for us with thy Lord. Don’t you see (the trouble) in which we are? Don’t you see (the misfortune) that has overtaken us? Jesus would say: Verily, my Lord is angry today as He had never been angry before or would ever be angry afterwards. HE MENTIONED NO SIN OF HIS. (He simply said:) I am concerned with myself, I am concerned with myself; you go to someone else: better go to Muhammad. They would come to me and say: O Mahammad, thou art the messenger of Allah and the last of the apostles. Allah has pardoned thee all thy previous and later sins…” (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0378 http://searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=001&translator=2&start=0&number=0378; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Now this places Muslims in a bit of a dilemma since the Quran clearly teaches that there is no creature that is completely sinless in God’s sight: 

And if Allah had destroyed men for their iniquity, He would not leave on the earth a single creature, but He respites them till an appointed time; so when their doom will come they shall not be able to delay (it) an hour nor can they bring (it) on (before its time). S. 16:61

And were Allah to punish men for what they earn, He would not leave on the back of it any creature, but He respites them till an appointed term; so when their doom shall come, then surely Allah is Seeing with respect to His servants. S. 35:45

As such, Christ could not be essentially pure and free from all moral defects if he was/is nothing more than a mere creature. Therefore, in order for him to be absolutely perfect and flawless Christ must be truly divine, just as much divine as Allah is supposed to be. 

ALLAH

Al- Muta’âlî: The High Exalted

He Who is free of imperfection and none has power like His, He who is great or supremely great, above the lies of the liars, or the Most High, who is higher than every other high one, or He who has ascendancy over everything by His power or He who is exalted above the attributes of created things. 

Al-Muta’ali is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.

“Allah knows what every female bears and every shrinking of the womb and every swelling. Everything has its measure with Him, the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, the Most Great, the High Exalted.” (13:9-10)

“May Allah be exalted above what they associate with Him!” (27:63)

Al-‘Alî, Al-‘Âlî, Al-‘A’lâ: The Most High 

Above and beyond, the High above whom there is nothing higher.

Al-‘Ali is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.

“Judgement belongs to Allah, the All-High, the All-Great.” (40:11)

“Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent.” (42:4)

“Glorify the name of your Lord, the Most High.” (87:1)

“Only desiring the Face of their Lord Most High.” (92:20)

“That is because Allah is the Real and what you call on apart from Him is false. Allah is the All-High, the All-Great.” (22:60)

JESUS

The Islamic scripture proclaims that Allah took Jesus to be personally with him:

When God said, ‘O Jesus! I will make Thee die and take Thee up again to me and will clear thee of those who misbelieve, and will make those who follow thee above those who misbelieve, at the day of judgment, then to me is your return. I will decide between you concerning that wherein ye disagree. S. 3:55 Palmer

But Allah raised him [‘Iesa (Jesus)] up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens). And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise. S. 4:158 Hilali-Khan

Jesus is therefore physically dwelling wherever Allah is supposed to be. And since Allah is supposed to be on/over his throne, which is supposed to be over the entire creation,

God! There is no god but He, – the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) before or after or behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory). S. 2:255 Y. Ali

Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)! S. 7:54 Hilali-Khan

This means that Jesus is over all creation, and is therefore just as highly exalted as Allah himself!

ALLAH 

Al-Bâ’ith: The Raiser

The Raiser, Resurrector. To re-create, like Mu’id; revive; also to send. The One who Quickens mankind after death. To cause something to be. 

Al-Ba’ith is one of the Ninety-Nine Names.

“Allah will raise up all those in the graves.” (22:7)

Al-Muhyî, Al-Mumît: The One Who Gives Life, The One who Makes Die 

The Life-Giver or Quickener who makes something alive, to be a living thing; He quickenes him or endues him with life or revives him. He revives the earth with rain and endues with intelligence. Al-Mumit is the One who causes to die.

Al-Muhyi and Al-Mumit are two of the Ninety-Nine Names.

“How can you reject Allah, when you were dead and then He gave you life, then He will make you die and then give you life again, then you will be returned to Him?” (2:27)

JESUS 

Here is where it gets rather interesting. According to the Quran, there is only one other Person who possesses the ability to create, breathe forth life, and resurrect the dead, namely, Jesus Christ!

And [he will be] a messenger to the Children of Israel, “Truly I have brought you a sign from your Lord. I WILL CREATE for you out of clay the shape of a bird. Then I will breathe into it, and it will be a bird by God’s Leave. And I will heal the blind and the leper AND GIVE LIFE TO THE DEAD by God’s Leave. And I will inform you about what you eat and what you store up in your houses. Truly in that is a sign for you, I you are believers.” S. 3:49

Then God will say, “O Jesus son of Mary! Remember My Blessing upon thee, when I strengthened thee with the Holy Spirit, that thou mightest speak to people in the cradle and in maturity; and when I taught thee the Book, Wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel; and how didst CREATE out of clay the shape of a bird, by My Leave, and thou wouldst breathe into it, and it would become a bird, by My Leave; and thou wouldst heal the blind and the leper, by My Leave, AND THOU WOULDST BRING FORTH THE DEAD, by My Leave; and how I restrained the Children of Israel from thee, when thou didst bring them clear proofs, and those who disbelieved among them said, ‘This is naught but manifest sorcery.’” S. 5:110

This is also what makes these Quranic verses rather remarkable. The Quran has Christ creating life and raising the dead in the exact way that Allah does so:

And when you slew a soul and cast the blame upon one another regarding it–and God is the discloser of what you were concealing–We said, “Strike him with part of it.” Thus does God give life to the dead and show you His signs, that haply you may understand. S. 2:72-73 The Study Quran (TSQ)

Hast thou not considered him who disputeth with Abraham about his Lord because God had given him sovereignty? When Abraham said, “My Lord gives life and causes death,” he said, “I give life and cause death.” Abraham said, “Truly God brings the sun from the east. Bring it, then, from the west.” Thus was he who disbelieved confounded. And God guides not wrongdoing people. S. 2:258 TSQ

Only those who hear will respond. As for the dead, God will resurrect them, and unto Him they shall be returned. S. 6:36 TSQ

Your Lord said to the angels: “I am creating a human from hardened clay of aged mud. So when I perfect him, and blow of My Spirit in him, you shall fall prostrate to him.” S. 15:28-29 Quran: A Reformist Translation (QRT)

“For they are all enemies unto me, save the Lord of the worlds, Who created me, and guides me, and Who feeds me and gives me drink, and Who, when I am ill, heals me, and Who causes me to die, then gives me life, and Who I hope will forgive me my sins on the Day of Judgment.” S. 26:77-82 TSQ

Truly We give life to the dead and record that which they have sent forth and that which they left behind. And We have counted all things in a clear registry. S. 36:12 TSQ

For your Lord said to the angels: “I am creating a human being from clay. So when I have evolved him, and breathed into him from My Spirit, then you shall submit to him.” S. 38:71-72 QRT

Just to get an idea of how amazing all of this is, note what the following Muslim scholars say in regards to the Quran’s assigning to Jesus specific potencies and titles normally attributed to the Islamic deity:

“… His creating live birds out of clay birds, healing the blind and the leper, and raising the dead are likewise recounted in 3:49 (for blind and leper, see 3:49c). These last three miraculous powers attributed to Jesus are EXTRAORDINARY in that THEY SUGGEST POWERS USUALLY RESERVED FOR GOD; God is the one who heals (26:8 [sic]); He is the raiser of the dead throughout the Quran: and the creation of birds from clay and bringing them to life by breathing upon them IS EXACTLY PARALLEL TO GOD’S CREATION OF THE HUMAN BEING (15:26-29; 32:7-9; 38:71-72). The verse repeatedly makes clear, however, that all these powers are done by God’s leave (by My Leave) and so are ultimately His. Jesus’ ability to heal and power to raise the dead are also found in the canonical Gospels, and a similar account of Jesus’ creating birds from clay is given in the noncanonical Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” (The Study Quran: A New Translation and Commentary, Seyyed Hossein Nasr (editor-in-chief) [HarperOne, 2015], p. 334; bold and capital emphasis ours)

The attempt to diminish Jesus’ ability to perform exclusively divine functions is unconvincing for the following reasons. First, the phrase “God’s Leave” need not mean that Jesus was given the power to carry out these amazing feats. Rather, this expression can simply mean that Allah or God gave Jesus the permission to exercise his intrinsic divine authority to perform these miraculous signs and wonders. Note, for instance, how the following verse employs this phrase:

Whosoever is an enemy of Gabriel: he it is who sent it down upon thy heart by God’s Leave, confirming that which was there before, and as a guidance and glad tiding for the believers. S. 2:97 TSQ

It is clear from the context that “by God’s Leave” means here that Gabriel had to first receive permission from Allah before he could bring down portions of the Quran to Muhammad.

The second problem with the Muslim objection is that this still leaves Muslims with the problem of their god making Jesus his partner by permitting him to share in his unique qualities and abilities. In so doing, Allah basically ended up committing the very transgression that the Muslim scripture says shall never be forgiven:

Truly God forgives not that any partner be ascribed unto Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whomsoever He will, whosoever ascribes partners unto God has surely fabricated a tremendous sin. S. 4:48 TSQ – cf. Q. 4:116; 2:22; 39:65

This now poses a major dilemma for Muslims. They must either contend with the fact that their god is guilty of shirk, seeing that he has elevated a creature to be his associate and partner in divinity. Or they must accept that Jesus is not a finite human being, but rather he is a divine being who became a man, and therefore one with Allah in his essential divine attributes.

Thus, whatever the answer a Muslim chooses s/he will not be able to get around the fact that the Quran indisputably ascribes to Jesus some of the very names and abilities, which are supposed to belong to Allah alone.

All of the names of Allah cited in this article were taken from Aisha Bewley’s article titled “The Divine Names,” which can be accessed here: http://bewley.virtualave.net/names.html

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