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The Muhammadan Fraud That Was Ahmed Deedat: Which Quran?

It’s time to turn the tables https://answeringallah.com/the-muhammadan-fraud-that-was-ahmed-deedat-which-bible/ against Muslims by raising the same objection that Deedat against the Bible to his own respective scripture.

Even though Muslims have been led to believe that the Quran consists of only 116 chapters, the fact is that there earliest and most reliable sources confirm that such was not always the case. According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad’s companions compiled differing and conflicting Qurans, some of which either had less or more surahs than the current version circulating in the Muslim world. Case in point:

Subdivision concerning the Arrangement of the Qur’an in the Manuscript of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud

Al-Fadl ibn Shadhan said, “I found in a manuscript of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud the compilation of the surahs of the Qur’an in accordance with the following sequence:

Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2
Al-Nisa (The Women) 4
Al ‘Imran (The Family of Imran) 3
Alif(A) Lam(L) Mim(M) Sad(S) 7
Al-An’am (The Cattle) 6
Al-Ma’idah (The Dining Table) 5
Yunus (Jonah) 10
Al-Nahl (The Bee) 16
Hud 11
Yusuf (Joseph) 12
Bani Isra’il (Children of Israel) 17
Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) 21
Al-Mu’minun (The Believers) 23
Al-Shu’ara (The Poets) 26
Al-Saffat (Those Who Rank Themselves) 37
Al-Ahzab (The Confederates) 33
Al-Qasas (The Story) 28
Al-Nur (The Light) 24
Al-Anfal (The Spoils) 8
Maryam (Mary) 19
Al-‘Ankabut (The Spider) 29
Al-Rum (The Byzantines) 30
Ya(Y) Sin(S) 36
Al-Furqan (The Test of Truth) 25
Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage) 22
Al-Ra‘d 13
Saba 34
Al-Mala’ikah (The Angels) 35
Ibrahim (Abraham) 14
Sad(S) 38
Those who disbelieve 47
Al-Qamar (The Moon) 31
Al-Zumar (The Troops) 39
The Praise-Giving Ha(H) Mim(M) Surahs:
Ha(H)Mim(M): Al-Mu’min (The Believer) 40
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Zukhruf (The Ornaments) 43
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Sajdah (The Worship) 41
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Ahqaf (The Sandhills) 46
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Jathiyah (The Kneeling) 45
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Dukhan (The Smoke) 44
Lo, We have given thee a victory 48
Al-Hadid (The Iron) 57
Sabbah: Al-Hashr (Praise: The Assembling) 59
Tanzil: Al-Sajdah (Revelation: Worship) 32
Qaf(Q) 50
Al-Talaq (The Divorce) 65
Al-Hujurat (The Private Apartments) 49
Blessed is he in whose hand is the sovereignty 67
Al-Taghabun (Disillusion) 64
Al-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites) 63
Al-Jumu’ah (The Congregation) 62
Al-Hawariyun (The Disciples) 61
Say: It has been revealed to me 72
Lo, We sent Nuh (Noah) 71
Al-Mujadilah (She Who Pleads) 58
Al-Mumtahanah (She Who Is Examined) 60
Oh, Prophet, wherefore dost forbid 66
Al-Rahman (The Compassionate) 55
Al-Najm (The Star) 53
Al-Dhariyat (Those Scattering) 51
Al-Tur (The Mountain) 52
The hour draw nigh 54
Al-Haqqah (The Infallible) 69
When there happens 56
Nun(N) and the Pen 68
Al-Nazi‘at (Those Who Drag Forth) 79
A questioner questioned 70
Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked) 74
Al-Muzzammil (The Wrapped-Up) 73
Al-Mutiffifin (Giver of Short Measure) 83
He frowned 80
Has there come upon man? 76
Al-Qiyamah (The Resurrection) 75
Al-Mursalat (Those Sent Forth) 77
Wherefore do they question? 78
When the sun is covered 81
When the heavens are cleft 82
Has there not come to you an account of the overwhelming? 88
Glorify the name of your Lord the Most High 87
And the night when it enshrouds 92
Al-Fajr (The Dawn) 89
Al-Buruj (The Stars of the Zodiac) 85
Al-Inshiqaq (Rent Asunder) 84
Recite in the name of your Lord 96
Verily, I swear by this city 90
Wa-al Duha (And the Morning Light) 93
Have We not expanded for you 94
And the heavens and the night comer 86
Al-‘Adiyat (The Runners) 100
Have you seen someone? 107
Al-Qari‘ah (The Calamity) 101
Those of the People of the Book who were unbelievers were not 98
The sun and morning light 91
And the fig 95
Woe to every slanderer 104
Al-Fil (The Elephant) 105
For uniting the Quraysh 106
Al-Takathur (Rivalry for Wealth) 102
Verily, We revealed it And the afternoon.
We have created man for loss [of God’s favor]
in which he will remain until the end of time, except for those who believe,
enjoining one another to piety and committing each other to endurance.26
When the help of Allah cometh 110
Verily, We have given you 108
Say: Oh, you who disbelieved, I do not worship what you worship 109
The hands of Abu Lahab have perished and he as perished.
His wealth will not be enough for him, nor his gains.
His wife, moreover, is the bearer of wood.27
111
Allah is one, eternal 112

THESE ARE ONE HUNDRED AND TEN SURAHS. (Abu’l-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq Al-Nadim, The Fihrist – A 10th Century AD Survey of Islamic Culture, edited and translated by Bayard Dodge [Great Books of the Islamic World, Inc., Columbia University Press, 1970], pp. 53-57; bold and capital emphasis mine)

The translator’s notes 26 and 27 are quite interesting:

  1. The author has evidently quoted these sentences to show how different they are from the authorized version of the Qur’an. Cf. Surah 103 of the authorized version. (Ibid., p. 57)
  2. Here are again the verses are quoted, as they are a variation. The authorized version makes it clear that the wife of Abu Lahab is carrying fuel to feed the flames with which her husband is being burned in Hell. For the surah which follows, the authorized version has, “Say, Allah is one, Allah the Eternal.” (Ibid.)

It gets worse for the Muslims. This same 10th century Muslim work goes on to mention Ubayy ibn Kab’s Quran:

According to another tradition, “Al-Tur” [Surah 52] comes before “Al-Dhariyat” [Surah 51].

Ibn Shadhan stated that Ibn Sirin said ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud did not transcribe into his manuscript either “Al-Mu’awwidhatan [Surahs 113-114]” or the opening of the Book. Moreover, al-Fadl [Ibn Shadhan] quoted in sequence from al-A’mashsaying that in the reading of ‘Abd Allah [ibn Mas’ud] there was Ha(H) Mim(M) Sin(S) Qaf(Q) [This refers to Q. 42 and it reads, Ha(H) Mim(M) ‘Ayn(‘) Sin(S) Qaf(Q)].”

Thus saith Muhammad ibn Ishaq [al-Nadim]: I have seen a number of Quranic manuscripts, which the transcribers recorded as manuscripts from Ibn Mas‘ud. NO TWO QUR’ANIC COPIES WERE IN AGREEMENT and most of them were on badly effaced parchment. I also saw a Qur’anic manuscript transcribed about two hundred years ago which included the opening of the Book. As al-Fadl ibn Shadhan was one of the leading authorities on the Qur’an and the Hadith, I have mentioned what he said, in addition to what we ourselves have witnessed.

Subdivision concerning the Arrangement of the Qur’an in the Manuscript of Ubayy ibn Ka’b

Al-Fadl ibn Shadhan said:

One of OUR RELIABLE FRIENDS has informed us, saying that the composition of the surahs according to the reading of Ubayy ibn Ka’b is in a village called Qariyat al-Ansar, two passages parasangs from al-Basrah, where in his home Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Malik al-Ansari showed us a Qur’anic manuscript, saying, “This is the copy of Ubayy which we have, handed down from our fathers.” I looked into it and ascertained the headings of the surahs, the endings of the revelations, and the number of verses.

Fatihat al-Kitab (Opening of the Book) – was the first 1
Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2
Al-Nisa (The Women) 4
Al-Imran (The Family of ‘Imran) 3
Al-An’am (The Cattle) 6
Al-A’raf (The Heights) 7
Al-Ma’idah (The Table) 5
Alif(A) Lam(L) Dhal(Dh) Ya(Y)
– about which I was confused, but it is “Yunus” (Jonah).36
10
Al-Anfal (The Spoils) 8
Al-Tawbah (Repentance) 9
Hud 11
Maryam (Mary) 19
Al-Shu’ara (The Poets) 26
Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage) 22
Yusuf (Joseph) 12
Al-Kahf (The Cave) 18
Al-Nahl (The Bee) 16
Al-Ahzab (The Confederates) 33
Bani Isra’il (The Children of Israel) 17
Al-Zumar (The Troops) 39
Ha(H) Mim(M): Tanzil (Revelation) 45
Ta(T) Ha(H) 20
Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) 21
Al-Nur (The Light) 24
Al-Mu’minun (The Believers) 23
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Mu’min (The Believer) 40
Al-Ra’d (The Thunder) 13
Ta(T) Sin(S) Mim(M): Al-Qasa (The Story) 28
Ta(T) Sin(S): Sulayman (Solomon) 27
Al-Saffat (Those Who Rank Themselves) 37
Da’ud: Surah Sad(S) (David) 38
Ya(Y) Sin(S) 36
Ashab al-Hijr (The Inhabitants of the Rocky Land) 15
Ha(H) Mim(M) ‘Ayn(A) Sin(S) Qaff(Q) 42
Al-Rum (The Byzantines) 30
Al-Zukhruf (The Ornaments) 43
Ha(H) Mim(M): Al-Sajdah (The Worship) 41
Surah of Ibrahim (Abraham) 14
Al-Mala’ikah (The Angels) 35
Al-Fath (The Victory) 48
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and give him peace 47
Al-Hadid (The Iron) 57
Al-Tur (The Mountain) 52
Tabarak: Al-Furqan (Blessed: The Test of Truth) 25
Alif(A) Lam(L) Mim(M): Tanzil (Revelation) 32
Nuh (Noah) 71
Al-Ahqaf (The Sandhills) 46
Qaf(Q) 50
Al-Rahman (The Compassionate) 55
Al-Waqi’ah (The Event) 56
Al-Jinn 72
Al-Najm (The Star) 53
Nun(N) 68
Al-Haqqah (The Infallible) 69
Al-Hashr (The Assembling) 59
Al-Mumtahanah (She Who Is Examined) 60
Al-Mursalat (Those Sent Forth) 77
Whereof do they question? 78
Al-Insan (The Man) 76
Verily I swear 75
Covered 81
Al-Nazi’at (Those Who Drag Forth) 79
‘Abas[a] (He Frowned) 80
Al-Mutiffifin (Those Who Give Short Measure) 83
When the heavens are split 84
Al-Tin (The Fig) 95
Recite in the name of your Lord 96
Al-Hujurat (The Private Apartments) 49
Al-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites) 63
Al-Jumu’ah (The Congregation) 62
Al-Nabi, for whom be peace 66
Al-Fajr (The Dawn) 89
Al-Mulk (The Sovereignty) 67
The night when it enshrouds 92
When the heavens are cleft 82
And the sun with its morning light 91
And the heavens with the stars 85
Al-Tariq (The Night Comer) 86
Glorify the name of your Lord the Most High 87
Al-Ghashiyah (The Overshadowing) 88
‘Abas[a] (He Frowned)42 74?
He was not the first those who disbelieved 98?
Al-Saff (The Ranks) 61
Al-Duha (The Morning Light) 93
Have we not expanded your 94
Al-Qari’ah (The Calamity) 101
Al-Takathur (Rivalry for Wealth) 102
Al-Khal’ (Divorce), three verses44 65?
Al-Jid (The Neck), six verses45
Oh, Allah, Thee do we worship-the last of which is-with the unbelievers.
It is appended to “Al-Lumazah.”46
104
When it quakes 99
Al-Adiyat (The Runners) 100
Ashab al-Fil (Owners of the Elephant) 105
Al-Tin (The Fig)47 ?
Al-Kawthar (Abundance) 108
Al-Qadr (The Power) 97
Al-Kafirun (The Unbelievers) 109
Al-Nasr (Help) 110
Abi Lahab 111
Quraysh 106
Al-Samad (The Eternal) 112
Al-Falaq (The Dawn) 113
Al-Nas (Mankind) 114

THIS IS ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEEN SURAHS. (Ibid., pp. 57-61; bold, capital, and comments within brackets mine)

Here are the translator’s comments in the footnotes that appear in the above chart which further highlight the differences that existed between Ubayy’s codex and the present day Quranic text:

  1. In the authorized version the letters are “Alif(A) Lam(L) Ra(R).” …
  2. ‘Abas[a] has already been mentioned as Surah 80. As the word appears in Surah 74, V. 22, this may refer to that surah, which is not mentioned elsewhere in this list. (p. 61)
  3. This surah is probably meant as Surah 65, which deals with the subject of divorce. On the other hand, Surah 65 has many verses, so that “Al-Khal” may be a garbled title for Surah 103, which has three verses…
  4. Al-jid(“neck”) is mentioned at the end of Surah 111, but this surah is included as “Abi Lahab.” Perhaps the word is meant to be al-hamd, the opening word of Surah 34, not mentioned elsewhere in this list…
  5. “Al-Lumazah” almost certainly refers to Surah 104, but the words appended are not in the authorized version
  6. This is a mistake, as the surah has already been mentioned and the name does not resemble titles of surahs not elsewhere mentioned. (Ibid. p. 58; bold emphasis mine)

Hence, not only were there copies of Ubayy’s and ibn Masud’s Qurans still circulating centuries after their deaths that did not follow the same order, but these codices didn’t even have the same number of surahs! Ibn Masud’s had only 110 surahs whereas Ubayy’s had a total of 116, two more than the 114 chapters of the present day Quran! Even more troubling is the fact that, according to the above source, no two copies of ibn Masud’s Qurans were identical with each other, obviously due to the mistakes of the scribes and copyists!

The importance of Ubayy bin Kab and Abdullah bin Masud

The readers may be left wondering why are these variant readings taken from the codices of Ubayy b. Ka’b and Abdullah ibn Masud such important witnesses to the corruption of the Quran. The reason is that they are based on the compilation of two of the four men whom Muhammad personally named as individuals that Muslims were required to learn the Quran from!

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr:

Allah’s Apostle neither talked in an insulting manner nor did he ever speak evil intentionally. He used to say, “The most beloved to me amongst you is the one who has the best character and manners.” He added, “Learn the Qur’an from (any of these) four persons: ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud, Salim the freed slave of Abu Hudhaifa, Ubai bin Ka’b, and Mu’adh bin Jabal.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 57, Number 104 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=57&translator=1&start=0&number=104)

Narrated Masriq:

‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr mentioned ‘Abdullah bin Masud and said, “I shall ever love that man, for I heard the Prophet saying, ‘Take (learn) the Qur’an from four: ‘Abdullah bin Masud, Salim, Mu’adh and Ubai bin Ka’b.’” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 521https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=61&translator=1&start=0&number=521)

Ubayy is also one of four men to have the entire Quran in his possession.

Narrated Qatada:

I asked Anas bin Malik: “Who collected the Qur’an at the time of the Prophet?” He replied, “Four, all of whom were from the Ansar: Ubai bin Ka’b, Mu’adh bin Jabal, Zaid bin Thabit and Abu Zaid.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 525 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=61&translator=1&start=0&number=525)

And:

… When the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, breathed his last, NOT MORE THAN FOUR PERSONS HAD THE QUR’AN IN ITS ENTIRETY. All of them were of the Ansars and there is a difference about the fifth one. The persons of the Ansars who had collected it in its entirety were Zayd Ibn Thabit, Abu Zayd, Mu’adh Ibn Jabal and Ubayyi Ibn Ka’b, and the person about whom there is a difference was Tamim al-Dari. (Ibn Sa’d, Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir, English translation by S. Moinul Haq, M.A., PH.D assisted by H.K. Ghazanfar M.A. (Kitab Bhavan Exporters & Importers, 1784 Kalan Mahal, Daryaganj, New Delhi – 110 002 India), Volume II, Parts I & II, pp. 457-458; bold and capital emphasis mine)

In the case of ibn Masud he was also one who had memorized the entire Quran:

Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama:

Once ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud delivered a sermon before us and said, “By Allah, I learnt over seventy Suras direct from Allah’s Apostle. By Allah, the companions of the Prophet came to know that I am one of those who know Allah’s Book best of all of them, yet I am not the best of them.” Shaqiq added: I sat in his religious gathering and I did not hear anybody opposing him (in his speech). (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 522 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=61&translator=1&start=0&number=522)

And:

Narrated ‘Abdullah (bin Mas’ud): By Allah other than Whom none has the right to be worshipped! There is no Sura revealed in Allah’s Book but I know at what place it was revealed; and there is no Verse revealed in Allah’s Book but I know about whom but that I know about what it was revealed. If I had known that someone had better knowledge of the Book of Allah than I do, and he was at a place which could be reached by camel, I would have ridden to him (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 524 https://www.searchtruth.com/book_display.php?book=61&translator=1&start=0&number=524)

Again:

He was followed by ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Zayd ibn Thabit, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. All that is taken from the Companions has excellent preference because they witnessed the revelation and its descent in their language. ‘Amir ibn Wathila said, “I saw ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib speaking. I heard him say in his khutba, ‘Ask me. By Allah, you will not ask me about anything that will happen until the Day of Rising but that I will tell you about it. Ask me about the Book of Allah. By Allah, there is no ayat but that I know whether it was revealed at night or in the day, revealed on flat ground or on a mountain.’” Ibn al-Kawwa’ rose and asked about Surat adh-Dhariyat (51).

‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said, “If I knew of anyone with more knowledge of the Book of Allah than me, who could be reached by mounts, I would go to him.” A man asked him, “Have you not met ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib?” ‘Yes,” he replied, “I have met him.” Masruq said, “I found some of the Companions of Muhammad like pools which water one person, some like pools which water two, and some such that if all people had come to it, it would satisfy them. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud was one of those pools.” (Bewley, Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Introduction: What is reported regarding threats against engaging in tafsir of the Qur’an by means of opinion (ra’y) or being bold in that, and the ranks of the commentators, pp. 38-39 http://bewley.virtualave.net/ulum1.html)

Finally:

The Qadi did not mention ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud and Salim, the client of Abu Hudhayfa, although they were among those who knew the entire Qur’an. It is reported that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “I was with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and with him were Abu Bakr and whomever Allah wished. We passed ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud who was praying. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, ‘Who is reciting the Qur’an?’ He was told, ”Abdullah ibn Umm ‘Abd.’ He said, ”Abdullah recites the Qur’an fresh as it was revealed.’”

One scholar said that this meant that he recited the first harf in which the Qur’an was revealed rather than the other seven which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was allowed after the Messenger of Allah, Jibril, recited the Qur’an to him in Ramadan. It is related that Abu Æubyan said, “‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas asked me, ‘Which of the recitations do you recite?’ I replied, ‘The first recitation, that of Ibn Umm ‘Abd.’ He told me, ‘Rather it was the last. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to present the Qur’an to Jibril once a year. In the year that he died, the Messenger of Allah read it to him twice. ‘Abdullah was present and knew what was abrogated and changed in that.’” In Muslim, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr stated that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Take the Qur’an from four: Ibn Umm ‘Abd – and he began with him – Mu’adh ibn Jabal, Ubayy ibn Ka’b and Salim, the client of Abu Hudhayfa.”

These reports indicate that ‘Abdullah knew all the Qur’an in the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah, contrary to what was said, and Allah knows best. In Kitab ar-Radd, al-Anbari transmitted that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said, “I learned 72 (or 73) suras from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I read to him from al-Baqara as far as ‘Allah loves those who repent’ (2:222).” Abu Ishaq says that he learned the rest of the Qur’an from Mujammi’ ibn Jariya al-Ansari. If this is true, the consensus which Yazid ibn Harun mentioned is true and that is why Qadi Ibn at-Tayyib did not mention him among those who knew the Qur’an by heart in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Allah knows best.

Part of what will indicate the soundness of Ibn Mas’ud’s knowledge of the Qur’an is that the people with the readings among the people of the Hijaz, Syria and Iraq all traced their readings which they chose back to one of the Companions who read it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. ‘Asim traced his reading to ‘Ali and Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn Kathir to Ubayy as did Abu ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ala’, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir traced his to ‘Uthman. All of them said that they had read it to the Messenger of Allah. The isnads of these readings are continuous and the transmitters are reliable, as al-Khattabi stated. (Bewley, Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Introduction: The collection of the Qur’an and the reason ‘Uthman had copies of the Qur’an copied out and burned the rest. The memorisation of the Qur’an by the Companions in the time of the Prophet, Section, pp. 57-58 http://bewley.virtualave.net/ulum2.html; bold emphasis mine)

This is the same ibn Masud who spoke out against Uthman’s Quran which Zaid ibn Thabit had compiled:

… Az-Zuhri said: “Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah informed me that Abdullah bin Mas’ud disliked Zaid bin Thabit copying the Musahif, and he said: ‘O you Muslim people! Avoid copying the Mushaf and recitation of this man. By Allah! When I accepted Islam he was but in the loins of a disbelieving man’ – meaning Zaid bin Thabit – and it was regarding this that Abdullah bin Mas’ud said: ‘O people of Al-Iraq! Keep the Musahif that are with you, and conceal them. For indeed Allah said: And whoever conceals something, he shall come with what he concealed on the Day of Judgement. So meet Allah with the Musahif.’”

Az-Zuhri said: “It was conveyed to me that some men among the most virtuous Companions of the Messenger of Allah disliked this view of Ibn Mas’ud.” (Sahih) (Jami‘ At-Tirmidhi, Volume 5, From Hadith No. 2606 to 3290, Chapter 9. Regarding Surat At-Tawbah, No. (19). 3104, p. 414 https://sunnah.com/urn/641130; bold emphasis mine)

And, as we saw earlier, ibn Masud also disagreed with the other memorizers such as Ubayy ibn Kab in that he did not include surahs 1 and 113-114 as part of his codex, whereas Ubayy’s codex had a total of 116!

Muslims you have serious problems!

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